Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Results
Abstract
All vitamin C studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin CVitamin C (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Effect of high-dose intravenous vitamin C on prognosis in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia

Suna et al., Med. Clin. (Barc.), doi:10.1016/j.medcli.2021.04.010
May 2021  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Mortality 21% Improvement Relative Risk ICU admission -2% Vitamin C for COVID-19  Suna et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with vitamin C beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 323 patients in Turkey Lower mortality with vitamin C (not stat. sig., p=0.52) c19early.org Suna et al., Med. Clin., May 2021 Favorsvitamin C Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
Vitamin C for COVID-19
6th treatment shown to reduce risk in September 2020
 
*, now with p = 0.000000038 from 71 studies, recognized in 12 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 77 treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 323 hospitalized patients, 153 treated with vitamin C, showing no significant differences. Patients in each group were in different time periods, with the vitamin C group first. Time based confounding is possible due to improvements in SOC.
Although the 21% lower mortality is not statistically significant, it is consistent with the significant 19% lower mortality [9‑27%] from meta analysis of the 42 mortality results to date.
This is the 25th of 71 COVID-19 controlled studies for vitamin C, which collectively show efficacy with p=0.000000038 (1 in 26 million).
21 studies are RCTs, which show efficacy with p=0.0012.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: substantial confounding by time likely due to declining usage over the early stages of the pandemic when overall treatment protocols improved dramatically.
risk of death, 21.3% lower, RR 0.79, p = 0.52, treatment 17 of 153 (11.1%), control 24 of 170 (14.1%), NNT 33.
risk of ICU admission, 1.9% higher, RR 1.02, p = 1.00, treatment 11 of 153 (7.2%), control 12 of 170 (7.1%).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Suna et al., 11 May 2021, retrospective, Turkey, peer-reviewed, 5 authors, dosage 2000mg daily.
This PaperVitamin CAll
Effect of high-dose intravenous vitamin C on prognosis in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia
Uzel S ¸ ener Kavurgacı Suna, Uzel Şener Melahat, Yıldız Murat, Öztürk Ergür Figen, Öztürk Ayperi
Medicina Clínica, doi:10.1016/j.medcli.2021.04.010
Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre -including this research content -immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.
Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
References
Alhazzani, Møller, Arabi, Loeb, Gong, Surviving sepsis campaign: guidelines on the management of critically ill adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), Intensive Care Med, doi:10.1007/s00134-020-06022-5
Aziz, Fatima, Assaly, Elevated interleukin-6 and severe COVID-19: a metaanalysis, J Med Virol, doi:10.1186/1743-7075-3-35
Barness, Safety considerations with high ascorbic acid dosage, Ann N Y Acad Sci, doi:10.1080/1478721020201794819
Campbell, Steinberg, Bower, Letter: ascorbic acidinduced hemolysis in G-6-PD deficiency, Ann Intern Med, doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1975.tb29311.xb
Cheng, Can early and high intravenous dose of vitamin C prevent and treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?, Med Drug Discov, doi:10.1016/j.medidd.2020.100028
Fijen, Weijmer, Acute oxalate nephropathy due to high vitamin C doses and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, BMJ Case Rep, doi:10.7326/0003-4819-82-6-810_1
Fowler, Truwit, Hite, Morris, Dewilde, Effect of vitamin C infusion on organ failure and biomarkers of inflammation and vascular injury in patients with sepsis and severe acute respiratory failure: the CITRIS-ALI randomized clinical trial, JAMA, doi:10.1016/j.chest.2016.11.036
Fujii, Luethi, Young, Frei, Eastwood et al., Effect of vitamin C, hydrocortisone, and thiamine vs hydrocortisone alone on time alive and free of vasopressor support among patients with septic shock: the vitamins randomized clinical trial, JAMA, doi:10.1093/jn/137.7.1757
Hiedra, Lo, Elbashabsheh, Gul, Wright et al., The use of IV vitamin C for patients with COVID-19: a case series, Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther, doi:10.21037/apm-20-1387
Hiedra, Lo, Elbashabsheh, Gul, Wright et al., The use of IV vitamin C for patients with COVID-19: a case series, Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther, doi:10.1001/jama.2019.22176
Jayawardena, Sooriyaarachchi, Chourdakis, Jeewandara, Ranasinghe, Enhancing immunity in viral infections, with special emphasis on COVID-19: a review, Diabetes Metab Syndr, doi:10.1007/s00134-020-06022-5
Johnston, Beezhold, Mostow, Swan, Plasma vitamin C is inversely related to body mass index and waist circumference but not to plasma adiponectin in nonsmoking adults, J Nutr, doi:10.1016/j.medidd.2020.100028
Johnston, Corte, Swan, Marginal vitamin C status is associated with reduced fat oxidation during submaximal exercise in young adults, Nutr Metab, doi:10.1186/s13054-018-2191-x
Li, Evidence is stronger than you think: a meta-analysis of vitamin C use in patients with sepsis, Crit Care, doi:10.1186/s13054-018-2191-x
Marik, Khangoora, Rivera, Hooper, Catravas, Hydrocortisone, vitamin C, and thiamine for the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock: a retrospective before-after study, Chest, doi:10.7326/0003-4819-140-7-200404060-00010
Medcli-, None
Mehta, Mcauley, Brown, Sanchez, Tattersall et al., COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30628-0
Padayatty, Sun, Wang, Riordan, Hewitt et al., Vitamin C pharmacokinetics: implications for oral and intravenous use, Ann Intern Med, doi:10.1080/14787210.2020.1794819
Suna, Melahat, Murat, None, Medicina Clínica xxx
Wang, Hu, Hu, Zhu, Liu et al., Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China, JAMA, doi:10.1002/jmv.25948
Zhao, Ling, Li, Peng, Huang et al., Beneficial aspects of high dose intravenous vitamin C on patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in severe condition: a retrospective case series study, Ann Palliat Med, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.1585
{ 'indexed': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 10, 24]], 'date-time': '2023-10-24T20:20:46Z', 'timestamp': 1698178846117}, 'reference-count': 21, 'publisher': 'Elsevier BV', 'issue': '8', 'license': [ { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 4, 1]], 'date-time': '2022-04-01T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1648771200000}, 'content-version': 'tdm', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/'}, { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 4, 1]], 'date-time': '2022-04-01T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1648771200000}, 'content-version': 'stm-asf', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-017'}, { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 4, 1]], 'date-time': '2022-04-01T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1648771200000}, 'content-version': 'stm-asf', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-037'}, { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 4, 1]], 'date-time': '2022-04-01T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1648771200000}, 'content-version': 'stm-asf', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-012'}, { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 4, 1]], 'date-time': '2022-04-01T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1648771200000}, 'content-version': 'stm-asf', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-029'}, { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 4, 1]], 'date-time': '2022-04-01T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1648771200000}, 'content-version': 'stm-asf', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-004'}], 'content-domain': { 'domain': ['clinicalkey.es', 'elsevier.es', 'elsevier.com', 'sciencedirect.com'], 'crossmark-restriction': True}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2022, 4]]}, 'DOI': '10.1016/j.medcli.2021.04.010', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2021, 5, 11]], 'date-time': '2021-05-11T21:20:45Z', 'timestamp': 1620768045000}, 'page': '356-360', 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/elsevier_cm_policy', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 13, 'title': 'Effect of high-dose intravenous vitamin C on prognosis in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia', 'prefix': '10.1016', 'volume': '158', 'author': [ {'given': 'Kavurgacı', 'family': 'Suna', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Uzel Şener', 'family': 'Melahat', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9625-9994', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Yıldız', 'family': 'Murat', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Öztürk Ergür', 'family': 'Figen', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0692-4784', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Öztürk', 'family': 'Ayperi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}], 'member': '78', 'reference': [ { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcli.2021.04.010_bib0110', 'series-title': 'Coronavirus disease', 'first-page': '93', 'author': 'World Health Organization', 'year': '2019'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcli.2021.04.010_bib0115', 'unstructured': 'NIH COVID-19 treatment guidelines. ' 'https://covid19treatmentguidelines.nih.gov/ [accessed 23.04.20]'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcli.2021.04.010_bib0120', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '854', 'DOI': '10.1007/s00134-020-06022-5', 'article-title': 'Surviving sepsis campaign: guidelines on the management of critically ' 'ill adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)', 'volume': '46', 'author': 'Alhazzani', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Intensive Care Med'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcli.2021.04.010_bib0125', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '367', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.015', 'article-title': 'Enhancing immunity in viral infections, with special emphasis on ' 'COVID-19: a review', 'volume': '14', 'author': 'Jayawardena', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Diabetes Metab Syndr'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcli.2021.04.010_bib0130', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '258', 'DOI': '10.1186/s13054-018-2191-x', 'article-title': 'Evidence is stronger than you think: a meta-analysis of vitamin C use ' 'in patients with sepsis', 'volume': '22', 'author': 'Li', 'year': '2018', 'journal-title': 'Crit Care'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcli.2021.04.010_bib0135', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '35', 'DOI': '10.1186/1743-7075-3-35', 'article-title': 'Marginal vitamin C status is associated with reduced fat oxidation ' 'during submaximal exercise in young adults', 'volume': '3', 'author': 'Johnston', 'year': '2006', 'journal-title': 'Nutr Metab'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcli.2021.04.010_bib0140', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '2283', 'DOI': '10.1002/jmv.25948', 'article-title': 'Elevated interleukin-6 and severe COVID-19: a meta-analysis', 'volume': '92', 'author': 'Aziz', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'J Med Virol'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcli.2021.04.010_bib0145', 'first-page': '323:1069', 'article-title': 'Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel ' 'coronavirus infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China', 'author': 'Wang', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'JAMA'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcli.2021.04.010_bib0150', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1599', 'DOI': '10.21037/apm-20-1387', 'article-title': 'Beneficial aspects of high dose intravenous vitamin C on patients with ' 'COVID-19 pneumonia in severe condition: a retrospective case series ' 'study', 'volume': '10', 'author': 'Zhao', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Ann Palliat Med'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcli.2021.04.010_bib0155', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1259', 'DOI': '10.1080/14787210.2020.1794819', 'article-title': 'The use of IV vitamin C for patients with COVID-19: a case series', 'volume': '18', 'author': 'Hiedra', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcli.2021.04.010_bib0160', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '533', 'DOI': '10.7326/0003-4819-140-7-200404060-00010', 'article-title': 'Vitamin C pharmacokinetics: implications for oral and intravenous use', 'volume': '140', 'author': 'Padayatty', 'year': '2004', 'journal-title': 'Ann Intern Med'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcli.2021.04.010_bib0165', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1229', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.chest.2016.11.036', 'article-title': 'Hydrocortisone, vitamin C, and thiamine for the treatment of severe ' 'sepsis and septic shock: a retrospective before-after study', 'volume': '151', 'author': 'Marik', 'year': '2017', 'journal-title': 'Chest'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcli.2021.04.010_bib0170', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1261', 'DOI': '10.1001/jama.2019.11825', 'article-title': 'Effect of vitamin C infusion on organ failure and biomarkers of ' 'inflammation and vascular injury in patients with sepsis and severe ' 'acute respiratory failure: the CITRIS-ALI randomized clinical trial', 'volume': '322', 'author': 'Fowler', 'year': '2019', 'journal-title': 'JAMA'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcli.2021.04.010_bib0175', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1033', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30628-0', 'article-title': 'COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression', 'volume': '395', 'author': 'Mehta', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Lancet'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcli.2021.04.010_bib0180', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '100028', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.medidd.2020.100028', 'article-title': 'Can early and high intravenous dose of vitamin C prevent and treat ' 'coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?', 'volume': '5', 'author': 'Cheng', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Med Drug Discov'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcli.2021.04.010_bib0185', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1757', 'DOI': '10.1093/jn/137.7.1757', 'article-title': 'Plasma vitamin C is inversely related to body mass index and waist ' 'circumference but not to plasma adiponectin in nonsmoking adults', 'volume': '137', 'author': 'Johnston', 'year': '2007', 'journal-title': 'J Nutr'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcli.2021.04.010_bib0190', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '423', 'DOI': '10.1001/jama.2019.22176', 'article-title': 'Effect of vitamin C, hydrocortisone, and thiamine vs hydrocortisone ' 'alone on time alive and free of vasopressor support among patients with ' 'septic shock: the vitamins randomized clinical trial', 'volume': '323', 'author': 'Fujii', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'JAMA'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcli.2021.04.010_bib0195', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1259', 'DOI': '10.1080/14787210.2020.1794819', 'article-title': 'The use of IV vitamin C for patients with COVID-19: a case series', 'volume': '18', 'author': 'Hiedra', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcli.2021.04.010_bib0200', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '523', 'DOI': '10.1111/j.1749-6632.1975.tb29311.x', 'article-title': 'Safety considerations with high ascorbic acid dosage', 'volume': '258', 'author': 'Barness', 'year': '1975', 'journal-title': 'Ann N Y Acad Sci'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcli.2021.04.010_bib0205', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '810', 'DOI': '10.7326/0003-4819-82-6-810_1', 'article-title': 'Letter: ascorbic acidinduced hemolysis in G-6-PD deficiency', 'volume': '82', 'author': 'Campbell', 'year': '1975', 'journal-title': 'Ann Intern Med'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcli.2021.04.010_bib0210', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e231504', 'DOI': '10.1136/bcr-2019-231504', 'article-title': 'Acute oxalate nephropathy due to high vitamin C doses and exocrine ' 'pancreatic insufficiency', 'volume': '12', 'author': 'Fijen', 'year': '2019', 'journal-title': 'BMJ Case Rep'}], 'container-title': 'Medicina Clínica', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://api.elsevier.com/content/article/PII:S0025775321002529?httpAccept=text/xml', 'content-type': 'text/xml', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://api.elsevier.com/content/article/PII:S0025775321002529?httpAccept=text/plain', 'content-type': 'text/plain', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 12, 29]], 'date-time': '2022-12-29T19:50:41Z', 'timestamp': 1672343441000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0025775321002529'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2022, 4]]}, 'references-count': 21, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '8', 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2022, 4]]}}, 'alternative-id': ['S0025775321002529'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medcli.2021.04.010', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['0025-7753'], 'subject': ['General Medicine'], 'container-title-short': 'Medicina Clínica', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2022, 4]]}, 'assertion': [ {'value': 'Elsevier', 'name': 'publisher', 'label': 'This article is maintained by'}, { 'value': 'Effect of high-dose intravenous vitamin C on prognosis in patients with ' 'SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia', 'name': 'articletitle', 'label': 'Article Title'}, {'value': 'Medicina Clínica', 'name': 'journaltitle', 'label': 'Journal Title'}, { 'value': 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medcli.2021.04.010', 'name': 'articlelink', 'label': 'CrossRef DOI link to publisher maintained version'}, {'value': 'article', 'name': 'content_type', 'label': 'Content Type'}, { 'value': '© 2021 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.', 'name': 'copyright', 'label': 'Copyright'}]}
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit