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Association of Oral or Intravenous Vitamin C Supplementation with Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Xu et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu15081848
Apr 2023  
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Vitamin C for COVID-19
6th treatment shown to reduce risk in September 2020
*, now known with p = 0.000000087 from 70 studies, recognized in 11 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Systematic review and meta analysis of vitamin C showing significantly lower mortality for COVID-19 and for sepsis.
6 meta analyses show significant improvements with vitamin C for mortality Bhowmik, Kow, Kow (B), Olczak-Pruc, progression Sun, severity Bhowmik, and cases Xu.
Currently there are 70 vitamin C for COVID-19 studies, showing 19% lower mortality [9‑27%], 9% lower ventilation [-12‑27%], 14% lower ICU admission [3‑24%], 19% lower hospitalization [6‑30%], and 4% more cases [-13‑25%].
Xu et al., 9 Apr 2023, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
This PaperVitamin CAll
AI generated summary. Current AI models can provide useful summaries for non-experts, but may be inaccurate and have limited ability to analyze larger context such as the entire evidence base for vitamin C.

Vitamin C supplementation may be beneficial for reducing mortality, particularly in patients with sepsis or COVID-19.

This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the association between oral or intravenous vitamin C supplementation and mortality. The authors found that there was a statistically significant reduction in all-cause mortality in patients who received vitamin C supplementation compared to those who did not (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.97). This finding was supported by subgroup analyses that showed a reduction in mortality in patients with sepsis (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.91) and COVID-19 (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.98). However, the authors noted that the results of their study should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of studies included and the heterogeneity of the study populations. They also recommended that further research be conducted to confirm these findings.

Vitamin C is an essential nutrient that plays a role in many important bodily functions, including the production of collagen, the absorption of iron, and the maintenance of a healthy immune system. It is also a powerful antioxidant, which means that it can help to protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. Free radicals are unstable molecules that are produced as a byproduct of normal metabolism. They can also be formed in response to environmental factors such as pollution, cigarette smoke, and ultraviolet radiation. Free radical damage has been linked to a number of chronic diseases, including heart disease, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease.

Vitamin C is found in a variety of fruits and vegetables, including citrus fruits, berries, tomatoes, and broccoli. It can also be taken as a supplement. The recommended daily intake of vitamin C for adults is 90 milligrams for men and 75 milligrams for women. However, some people may need to take higher doses, such as those who smoke or who have certain medical conditions.

The safety of vitamin C supplementation is generally considered to be good. However, taking high doses of vitamin C can cause side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. It is important to talk to your doctor before taking any supplements, including vitamin C.

Overall, the findings of this study suggest that vitamin C supplementation may be beneficial for reducing mortality. However, more research is needed to confirm these findings and to determine the optimal dose and duration of supplementation.

Association of Oral or Intravenous Vitamin C Supplementation with Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Luz Fernandez, Carol Johnston, Andrea Fabbri, Chongxi Xu, Tong Yi, Siwen Tan, Hui Xu, Yu Hu, Junpeng Ma, Jianguo Xu
Mortality is the most clinically serious outcome, and its prevention remains a constant struggle. This study was to assess whether intravenous or oral vitamin C (Vit-C) therapy is related to reduced mortality in adults. Data from Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register databases were acquired from their inception to 26 October 2022. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving intravenous or oral Vit-C against a placebo or no therapy for mortality were selected. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were sepsis, COVID-19, cardiac surgery, noncardiac surgery, cancer, and other mortalities. Forty-four trials with 26540 participants were selected. Although a substantial statistical difference was observed in all-cause mortality between the control and the Vit-C-supplemented groups (p = 0.009, RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.97, I 2 = 36%), the result was not validated by sequential trial analysis. In the subgroup analysis, mortality was markedly reduced in Vit-C trials with the sepsis patients (p = 0.005, RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.91, I 2 = 47%), and this result was confirmed by trial sequential analysis. In addition, a substantial statistical difference was revealed in COVID-19 patient mortality between the Vit-C monotherapy and the control groups (p = 0.03, RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.98, I 2 = 0%). However, the trial sequential analysis suggested the need for more trials to confirm its efficacy. Overall, Vit-C monotherapy does decrease the risk of death by sepsis by 26%. To confirm Vit-C is associated with reduced COVID-19 mortality, additional clinical random control trials are required.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. Study Registration: Prospero registration number CRD42022369724.
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