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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 47% Improvement Relative Risk Mortality, severe patients 53% Vitamin C for COVID-19  Kow et al.  META ANALYSIS c19early.org Favors vitamin C Favors control

The effect of vitamin C on the risk of mortality in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Kow et al., Inflammopharmacology, doi:10.1007/s10787-023-01200-5
Apr 2023  
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Vitamin C for COVID-19
7th treatment shown to reduce risk in September 2020
 
*, now known with p = 0.000000098 from 67 studies, recognized in 10 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Meta analysis of 11 vitamin C RCTs showing significantly lower COVID-19 mortality with treatment. The effect size is larger than in our analysis due to the authors' inclusion of 2 trials that we exclude due to combined treatments being likely to contribute more to the effect seen.
5 meta analyses show significant improvements with vitamin C for mortality Bhowmik, Kow, Olczak-Pruc, progression Sun, severity Bhowmik, and cases Xu.
Currently there are 67 vitamin C for COVID-19 studies, showing 19% lower mortality [9‑28%], 10% lower ventilation [-12‑28%], 15% lower ICU admission [2‑26%], 19% lower hospitalization [6‑30%], and 4% more cases [-13‑25%].
risk of death, 47.0% lower, OR 0.53, p = 0.03, RR approximated with OR.
risk of death, 53.0% lower, OR 0.47, p = 0.01, severe patients, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Kow et al., 18 Apr 2023, peer-reviewed, 3 authors. Contact: dineshsangarran.ramachandram@monash.edu, chiasiang_93@hotmail.com.
This PaperVitamin CAll
The effect of vitamin C on the risk of mortality in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Chia Siang Kow, Syed Shahzad Hasan, Dinesh Sangarran Ramachandram
Inflammopharmacology, doi:10.1007/s10787-023-01200-5
Background and Aims Vitamin C appears to be a viable treatment option for patients with COVID-19. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of vitamin C versus comparative interventions in patients with COVID-19. The outcome of interest was all-cause mortality. Results The meta-analysis of eleven trials using a random-effects model revealed significant reduction in the risk of allcause mortality with the administration of vitamin C among patients with COVID-19 relative to no vitamin C (pooled odds ratio = 0.53; 95% confidence interval 0.30-0.92). Subgroup analysis of studies that included patients with severe COVID-19 also produced findings of significant mortality reduction with the administration of vitamin C relative to no vitamin C (pooled odds ratio = 0.47; 95% confidence interval 0.26-0.84). Conclusion Overall, evidence from RCTs suggests a survival benefit for vitamin C in patients with severe COVID-19. However, we should await data from large-scale randomized trials to affirm its mortality benefits.
Author contributions CSK participated in the study conduct, and, data collection, as well as writing and reviewing the manuscript; DSR participated in data collection as well as writing and reviewing the manuscript; SSH performed the data analysis and interpretation; and all authors provided final approval of the manuscript for submission. Declarations Conflict of interest All authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. Publisher's Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
References
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