The effect of vitamin C on the risk of mortality in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Chia Siang Kow, Syed Shahzad Hasan, Dinesh Sangarran Ramachandram
Background and Aims Vitamin C appears to be a viable treatment option for patients with COVID-19. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of vitamin C versus comparative interventions in patients with COVID-19. The outcome of interest was all-cause mortality.
Results The meta-analysis of eleven trials using a random-effects model revealed significant reduction in the risk of allcause mortality with the administration of vitamin C among patients with COVID-19 relative to no vitamin C (pooled odds ratio = 0.53; 95% confidence interval 0.30-0.92). Subgroup analysis of studies that included patients with severe COVID-19 also produced findings of significant mortality reduction with the administration of vitamin C relative to no vitamin C (pooled odds ratio = 0.47; 95% confidence interval 0.26-0.84). Conclusion Overall, evidence from RCTs suggests a survival benefit for vitamin C in patients with severe COVID-19. However, we should await data from large-scale randomized trials to affirm its mortality benefits.
Author contributions CSK participated in the study conduct, and, data collection, as well as writing and reviewing the manuscript; DSR participated in data collection as well as writing and reviewing the manuscript; SSH performed the data analysis and interpretation; and all authors provided final approval of the manuscript for submission.
Declarations Conflict of interest All authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. Publisher's Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
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