Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All vitamin C studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin CVitamin C (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 47% Improvement Relative Risk Mortality, severe patients 53% Vitamin C for COVID-19  Kow et al.  META ANALYSIS Favors vitamin C Favors control

The effect of vitamin C on the risk of mortality in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Kow et al., Inflammopharmacology, doi:10.1007/s10787-023-01200-5
Apr 2023  
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
Vitamin C for COVID-19
7th treatment shown to reduce risk in September 2020
*, now known with p = 0.000000098 from 67 studies, recognized in 10 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Meta analysis of 11 vitamin C RCTs showing significantly lower COVID-19 mortality with treatment. The effect size is larger than in our analysis due to the authors' inclusion of 2 trials that we exclude due to combined treatments being likely to contribute more to the effect seen.
5 meta analyses show significant improvements with vitamin C for mortality Bhowmik, Kow, Olczak-Pruc, progression Sun, severity Bhowmik, and cases Xu.
Currently there are 67 vitamin C for COVID-19 studies, showing 19% lower mortality [9‑28%], 10% lower ventilation [-12‑28%], 15% lower ICU admission [2‑26%], 19% lower hospitalization [6‑30%], and 4% more cases [-13‑25%].
risk of death, 47.0% lower, OR 0.53, p = 0.03, RR approximated with OR.
risk of death, 53.0% lower, OR 0.47, p = 0.01, severe patients, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Kow et al., 18 Apr 2023, peer-reviewed, 3 authors. Contact:,
This PaperVitamin CAll
The effect of vitamin C on the risk of mortality in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Chia Siang Kow, Syed Shahzad Hasan, Dinesh Sangarran Ramachandram
Inflammopharmacology, doi:10.1007/s10787-023-01200-5
Background and Aims Vitamin C appears to be a viable treatment option for patients with COVID-19. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of vitamin C versus comparative interventions in patients with COVID-19. The outcome of interest was all-cause mortality. Results The meta-analysis of eleven trials using a random-effects model revealed significant reduction in the risk of allcause mortality with the administration of vitamin C among patients with COVID-19 relative to no vitamin C (pooled odds ratio = 0.53; 95% confidence interval 0.30-0.92). Subgroup analysis of studies that included patients with severe COVID-19 also produced findings of significant mortality reduction with the administration of vitamin C relative to no vitamin C (pooled odds ratio = 0.47; 95% confidence interval 0.26-0.84). Conclusion Overall, evidence from RCTs suggests a survival benefit for vitamin C in patients with severe COVID-19. However, we should await data from large-scale randomized trials to affirm its mortality benefits.
Author contributions CSK participated in the study conduct, and, data collection, as well as writing and reviewing the manuscript; DSR participated in data collection as well as writing and reviewing the manuscript; SSH performed the data analysis and interpretation; and all authors provided final approval of the manuscript for submission. Declarations Conflict of interest All authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. Publisher's Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Beigmohammadi, Bitarafan, Hoseindokht, Abdollahi, Amoozadeh et al., The effect of supplementation with vitamins A, B, C, D, and E on disease severity and inflammatory responses in patients with COVID-19: a randomized clinical trial, Trials
Cao, Wei, Zou, Jiang, Wang et al., Ruxolitinib in treatment of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a multicenter, single-blind, randomized controlled trial, J Allergy Clin Immunol
Jamalimoghadamsiahkali, Zarezade, Koolaji, Seyedalinaghi, Zendehdel et al., Safety and effectiveness of high-dose vitamin C in patients with COVID-19: a randomized open-label clinical trial, Eur J Med Res
Kumar, Bhushan, Supriya, Ganapule, Lohani et al., Efficacy of intravenous vitamin C in management of moderate and severe COVID-19: A double blind randomized placebo controlled trial, J Family Med Prim Care
Kumari, Dembra, Dembra, Bhawna, Gul et al., The role of vitamin C as adjuvant therapy in COVID-19, Cureus
Labbani-Motlagh, Amini, Aliannejad, Sadeghi, Shafiee et al., High-dose intravenous vitamin C in early stages of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection: a double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial, J Res Pharm Pract
Leal-Martínez, Abarca-Bernal, García-Pérez, González-Tolosa, Cruz-Cázares et al., Effect of a nutritional support system to increase survival and reduce mortality in patients with COVID-19 in stage III and comorbidities: a blinded randomized controlled clinical trial, Int J Environ Res Public Health
Majidi, Rabbani, Gholami, Gholamalizadeh, Bourbour et al., The effect of vitamin C on pathological parameters and survival duration of critically Ill coronavirus disease 2019 patients: A randomized clinical trial, Front Immunol
Tehrani, Yadegarynia, Abrishami, Moradi, Gharaei et al., An investigation into the Effects of intravenous vitamin C on pulmonary CT Findings and clinical outcomes of patients with COVID 19 pneumonia a randomized clinical trial, Urol J
Thomas, Patel, Bittel, Wolski, Wang et al., Effect of high-dose zinc and ascorbic acid supplementation vs usual care on symptom length and reduction among ambulatory Patients With SARS-CoV-2 infection: the COVID A to Z randomized clinical trial, JAMA Netw Open
Zhang, Rao, Li, Zhu, Liu et al., Pilot trial of high-dose vitamin C in critically ill COVID-19 patients, Ann Intensive Care
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop