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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 58% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin C  Gavrielatou et al.  ICU PATIENTS Is very late treatment with vitamin C beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 113 patients in Greece (October 2020 - March 2021) Lower mortality with vitamin C (not stat. sig., p=0.11) Gavrielatou et al., Frontiers in Medic.., Feb 2022 Favors vitamin C Favors control

Effect of Vitamin C on Clinical Outcomes of Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19: An Observational Study and Subsequent Meta-Analysis

Gavrielatou et al., Frontiers in Medicine, doi:10.3389/fmed.2022.814587
Feb 2022  
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Vitamin C for COVID-19
6th treatment shown to reduce risk in September 2020
*, now known with p = 0.000000087 from 70 studies, recognized in 11 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 113 consecutive mechanically ventilated COVID+ ICU patients in Greece, 10 receiving high dose IV vitamin C, showing lower mortality with treatment, without statistical significance (p=0.11).
The associated meta analysis includes only 11 studies, while there are currently 70 studies, 42 with mortality results. Authors only include critical patients, however not all studies with critical patients are included, for example Hamidi-Alamdari, Majidi, Yüksel, Özgünay. The meta analysis also uses unadjusted results, while PSM, Cox proportional hazards, or KM results are reported by Al Sulaiman, Gao, Zhang, Zheng. For Zhang authors use 28 day mortality, while the study reports longer term in-hospital mortality.
This is the 41st of 70 COVID-19 controlled studies for vitamin C, which collectively show efficacy with p=0.000000087 (1 in 11 million).
21 studies are RCTs, which show efficacy with p=0.0012.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: very late stage, ICU patients.
risk of death, 58.0% lower, RR 0.42, p = 0.11, treatment 2 of 10 (20.0%), control 49 of 103 (47.6%), NNT 3.6.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Gavrielatou et al., 11 Feb 2022, retrospective, Greece, peer-reviewed, 10 authors, study period 21 October, 2020 - 8 March, 2021, average treatment delay 5.5 days.
This PaperVitamin CAll
Effect of Vitamin C on Clinical Outcomes of Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19: An Observational Study and Subsequent Meta-Analysis
Evdokia Gavrielatou, Eleni Xourgia, Nikoleta A Xixi, Athina G Mantelou, Eleni Ischaki, Aggeliki Kanavou, Dimitris Zervakis, Christina Routsi, Anastasia Kotanidou, Ilias I Siempos
Frontiers in Medicine, doi:10.3389/fmed.2022.814587
of mortality among critically ill patients with COVID-19. Additional evidence is anticipated from relevant large randomized controlled trials which are currently underway.
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS EG contributed to study design, collected data, and interpreted data. EX and NX contributed to study design and the execution of the meta-analysis and they wrote the first draft of the manuscript. EX also undertook statistical analyses. AM, EI, and AKa contributed to data collection. DZ contributed to study design and data interpretation. CR and AKo contributed to data interpretation and critically revised the manuscript. IS conceived of the study, designed the study, supervised the data collection and statistical analyses, and is the guarantor, and final responsibility for the decision to submit for publication. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: 2022.814587/full#supplementary-material Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Publisher's Note: All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher. Copyright © 2022 Gavrielatou, Xourgia, Xixi, Mantelou,..
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Late treatment
is less effective
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