Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
Peg.. Lambda

All vitamin C studies
Meta analysis
Home COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin CVitamin C (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Bromhexine Meta Metformin Meta
Budesonide Meta
Cannabidiol Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta
Curcumin Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Ensovibep Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Peg.. Lambda Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Ivermectin Meta
Lactoferrin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis   Recent:  
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 28% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin C for COVID-19  Loucera et al.  Prophylaxis Is prophylaxis with vitamin C beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 15,968 patients in Spain (January - November 2020) Lower mortality with vitamin C (p=0.0018) Loucera et al., medRxiv, August 2022 Favors vitamin C Favors control

Real-world evidence with a retrospective cohort of 15,968 Andalusian COVID-19 hospitalized patients suggests 21 new effective treatments and one drug that increases death risk

Loucera et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.08.14.22278751
Aug 2022  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Retrospective 15,968 COVID-19 hospitalized patients in Spain, showing lower mortality with existing use of several medications including metformin, HCQ, aspirin, vitamin D, vitamin C, and budesonide.
This is the 51st of 63 COVID-19 controlled studies for vitamin C, which collectively show efficacy with p=0.00000026. 16 studies are RCTs, which show efficacy with p=0.00000018.
This study includes vitamin B9, HCQ, aspirin, ibuprofen, vitamin C, budesonide, famotidine, and metformin.
risk of death, 28.3% lower, HR 0.72, p = 0.002, treatment 840, control 15,128, Cox proportional hazards, day 30.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Loucera et al., 16 Aug 2022, retrospective, Spain, preprint, 8 authors, study period January 2020 - November 2020.
All Studies   Meta Analysis   Submit Updates or Corrections
This PaperVitamin CAll
Real-world evidence with a retrospective cohort of 15,968 Andalusian COVID-19 hospitalized patients suggests 21 new effective treatments and one drug that increases death risk
Carlos Loucera, Rosario Carmona, Marina Esteban-Medina, Gerrit Bostelmann, Dolores Muñoyerro-Muñiz, Román Villegas, María Peña-Chilet, Joaquin Dopazo
Despite the extensive vaccination campaigns in many countries, COVID-19 is still a major worldwide health problem because of its associated morbidity and mortality. Therefore, finding efficient treatments as fast as possible is a pressing need. Drug repurposing constitutes a convenient alternative when the need for new drugs in an unexpected medical scenario is urgent, as is the case with COVID-19. Using data from a central registry of electronic health records (the Andalusian Population Health Database, BPS), the effect of prior consumption of drugs for other indications previous to the hospitalization with respect to patient survival was studied on a retrospective cohort of 15,968 individuals, comprising all COVID-19 patients hospitalized in Andalusia between January and November 2020. Covariate-adjusted hazard ratios and analysis of lymphocyte progression curves support a significant association between consumption of 21 different drugs and better patient survival. Contrarily, one drug, furosemide, displayed a significant increase in patient mortality.
Supplementary Material Supplementary Table 1 . Data imported from BPS for each patient: code and definition of the variable. 2 . Log Hazard ratios obtained for the drugs tested, along with standard deviations (SDs), upper and lower coefficient intervals (CI), nominal and FDR-adjusted p-values. Also, Lymphocyte proliferation values (see Methods) along with standard deviations (SDs), upper and lower coefficient intervals (CI), nominal and FDR-adjusted p-values. The two last columns indicate the drugs used in the machine learning drug repurposing prediction study 10 and the significance of the prediction. Supplementary Table
Benjamini, Hochberg, Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B
Corrigan-Curay, Sacks, Woodcock, Real-World Evidence and Real-World Data for Evaluating Drug Safety and Effectiveness, JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association, doi:10.1001/jama.2018.10136
Cowie, Electronic health records to facilitate clinical research, Clinical Research in Cardiology
Greifer, Cobalt, Covariate Balance Tables and Plots
Greifer, Weightit, Weighting for Covariate Balance in Observational Studies
Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Identification and validation of clinical phenotypes with prognostic implications in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19: a multicentre cohort study, The Lancet infectious diseases, doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(21)00019-0
Hajage, Closed-form variance estimator for weighted propensity score estimators with survival outcome, Biometrical Journal
Hajage, Hripw, Hazard Ratio Estimation using Cox Model Weighted by the Estimated Propensity Score
Hannan, Randomized clinical trials and observational studies: guidelines for assessing respective strengths and limitations, JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions
Hoertel, Association between antidepressant use and reduced risk of intubation or death in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: results from an observational study, Molecular psychiatry
Huang, COVID-19 patients with hypertension have more severe disease: a multicenter retrospective observational study, Hypertension Research
Imbens, Nonparametric estimation of average treatment effects under exogeneity: A review, Review of Economics and statistics
Kouhpeikar, Statin Use in COVID-19 Hospitalized Patients and Outcomes: A Retrospective Study, Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Kuznetsova, Brockhoff, Christensen, lmerTest package: tests in linear mixed effects models, Journal of statistical software
Loucera, Drug repurposing for COVID-19 using machine learning and mechanistic models of signal transduction circuits related to SARS-CoV-2 infection, Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, doi:10.1038/s41392-020-00417-y
Loucera, Real world evidence of calcifediol or vitamin D prescription and mortality rate of COVID-19 in a retrospective cohort of hospitalized Andalusian patients, Scientific reports
Lu, Prognostic value of lymphocyte count in severe COVID-19 patients with corticosteroid treatment, Signal transduction and targeted therapy
Manenti, Reduced mortality in COVID-19 patients treated with colchicine: Results from a retrospective, observational study, PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0248276
Muñoyerro-Muñiz, Health record linkage: Andalusian health population database, Gaceta Sanitaria
Ostaszewski, COVID19 Disease Map, a computational knowledge repository of virus-host interaction mechanisms, Molecular Systems Biology, doi:10.15252/msb.202110387
Pawlowski, Enoxaparin is associated with lower rates of mortality than unfractionated Heparin in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, EClinicalMedicine
Peng, Role of Hypertension on the Severity of COVID-19: A Review, J Cardiovasc Pharmacol, doi:10.1097/fjc.0000000000001116
Rian, Mechanistic modeling of the SARS-CoV-2 disease map, BioData mining
Ruoff, ACE inhibitors and diuretics. The benefits of combined therapy for hypertension, Postgrad Med, doi:10.1080/00325481.1989.11700602
Sherman, Real-world evidence-what is it and what can it tell us, N Engl J Med
Sterne, Association between administration of systemic corticosteroids and mortality among critically ill patients with COVID-19: a meta-analysis, JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association
Stuart, Lee, Leacy, Prognostic score-based balance measures can be a useful diagnostic for propensity score methods in comparative effectiveness research, Journal of clinical epidemiology
Teixeira, Simvastatin Downregulates the SARS-CoV-2-Induced Inflammatory Response and Impairs Viral Infection Through Disruption of Lipid Rafts, Frontiers in Immunology
Umakanthan, The protective role of statins in COVID-19 patients: a retrospective observational study, Transl Med Commun, doi:10.1186/s41231-021-00102-4
Wood, Linked electronic health records for research on a nationwide cohort of more than 54 million people in England: data resource
Zhou, Liao, Pleiotropic effects of statins. -Basic research and clinical perspectives, Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society, doi:10.1253/circj.cj-10-0110
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop