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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality -12% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin C for COVID-19  Elhadi et al.  ICU PATIENTS Is very late treatment with vitamin C beneficial for COVID-19? Prospective study of 465 patients in Libya (May - December 2020) No significant difference in mortality Elhadi et al., PLOS ONE, April 2021 Favors vitamin C Favors control

Epidemiology, outcomes, and utilization of intensive care unit resources for critically ill COVID-19 patients in Libya: A prospective multi-center cohort study

Elhadi et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0251085
Apr 2021  
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Vitamin C for COVID-19
7th treatment shown to reduce risk in September 2020
*, now known with p = 0.000000087 from 70 studies, recognized in 11 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Prospective study of 465 COVID-19 ICU patients in Libya showing no significant differences with treatment.
This is the 24th of 70 COVID-19 controlled studies for vitamin C, which collectively show efficacy with p=0.000000087 (1 in 11 million).
21 studies are RCTs, which show efficacy with p=0.0012.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: unadjusted results with no group details; very late stage, ICU patients.
Study covers vitamin D, vitamin C, remdesivir, famotidine, and aspirin.
risk of death, 12.0% higher, RR 1.12, p = 0.15, treatment 175 of 277 (63.2%), control 106 of 188 (56.4%).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Elhadi et al., 30 Apr 2021, prospective, Libya, peer-reviewed, 21 authors, study period 29 May, 2020 - 30 December, 2020.
This PaperVitamin CAll
Epidemiology, outcomes, and utilization of intensive care unit resources for critically ill COVID-19 patients in Libya: A prospective multi-center cohort study
Muhammed Elhadi, Ahmed Alsoufi, Abdurraouf Abusalama, Akram Alkaseek, Saedah Abdeewi, Mohammed Yahya, Alsnosy Mohammed, Mohammed Abdelkabir, Mohammed Huwaysh, Emad Amkhatirah, Kamel Alshorbaji, Samer Khel, Marwa Gamra, Abdulmueti Alhadi, Taha Abubaker, Mohamed Anaiba, Mohammed Elmugassabi, Muhannud Binnawara, Ala Khaled, Ahmed Zaid, Ahmed Msherghi
PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0251085
Background The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has severely affected African countries, specifically the countries, such as Libya, that are in constant conflict. Clinical and laboratory information, including mortality and associated risk factors in relation to hospital settings and available resources, about critically ill patients with COVID-19 in Africa is not available. This study aimed to determine the mortality and morbidity of COVID-19 patients in intensive care units (ICU) following 60 days after ICU admission, and explore the factors that influence in-ICU mortality rate. Methods This is a multicenter prospective observational study among COVID-19 critical care patients in 11 ICUs in Libya from May 29th to December 30th 2020. Basic demographic data, clinical characteristics, laboratory values, admission Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, quick SOFA, and clinical management were analyzed. Result We included 465 consecutive COVID-19 critically ill patients. The majority (67.1%) of the patients were older than 60 years, with a median (IQR) age of 69 (56.5-75); 240 (51.6%) were male. At 60 days of follow-up, 184 (39.6%) were discharged alive, while 281 (60.4%) died in the intensive care unit. The median (IQR) ICU length of stay was 7 days (4-10) and
Author Contributions Conceptualization: Muhammed Elhadi. Data curation:
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Late treatment
is less effective
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