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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 83% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin C for COVID-19  Tu et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with vitamin C beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 180 patients in Sierra Leone (March - August 2020) Lower mortality with vitamin C (p<0.000001) Tu et al., Infectious Diseases & Immun.., Jan 2022 Favors vitamin C Favors control

Risk Factors for Severity and Mortality in Adult Patients Confirmed with COVID-19 in Sierra Leone: A Retrospective Study

Tu et al., Infectious Diseases & Immunity, doi:10.1097/ID9.0000000000000037
Jan 2022  
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Vitamin C for COVID-19
6th treatment shown to reduce risk in September 2020
*, now known with p = 0.000000087 from 70 studies, recognized in 11 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 180 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Sierra Leone, showing lower mortality with vitamin C treatment in unadjusted results.
This is the 39th of 70 COVID-19 controlled studies for vitamin C, which collectively show efficacy with p=0.000000087 (1 in 11 million).
21 studies are RCTs, which show efficacy with p=0.0012.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: unadjusted results with no group details.
Study covers HCQ and vitamin C.
risk of death, 83.0% lower, RR 0.17, p < 0.001, treatment 8 of 116 (6.9%), control 26 of 64 (40.6%), NNT 3.0.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Tu et al., 13 Jan 2022, retrospective, Sierra Leone, peer-reviewed, 11 authors, study period 31 March, 2020 - 11 August, 2020. Contact:,,
This PaperVitamin CAll
Risk Factors for Severity and Mortality in Adult Patients Confirmed with COVID-19 in Sierra Leone: A Retrospective Study
Bo Tu, Sulaiman Lakoh, Biao Xu, Marta Lado, Reginald Cole, Fang Chu, Susan Hastings-Spaine, Mohamed Bole Jalloh, Junjie Zheng, Weiwei Chen, Stephen Sevalie
Infectious Diseases & Immunity, doi:10.1097/id9.0000000000000037
Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious respiratory disease. There is no recommended antiviral treatment approved for COVID-19 in Sierra Leone, and supportive care and protection of vital organ function are performed for the patients. This study summarized the clinical characteristics, drug treatments, and risk factors for the severity and prognosis of COVID-19 in Sierra Leone to provide evidence for the treatment of COVID-19. Methods: Data of 180 adult COVID-19 patients from the 34th Military Hospital in Freetown Sierra Leone between March 31, 2020 and August 11, 2020 were retrospectively collected. Patients with severe and critically ill are classified in the severe group, while patients that presented asymptomatic, mild, and moderate disease were grouped in the non-severe group. The clinical and laboratory information was retrospectively collected to assess the risk factors and treatment strategies for severe COVID-19. Demographic information, travel history, clinical symptoms and signs, laboratory detection results, chest examination findings, therapeutics, and clinical outcomes were collected from each case file. Multivariate logistic analysis was adopted to identify the risk factors for deaths. Additionally, the clinical efficacy of dexamethasone treatment was investigated. Results: Seventy-six (42.22%) cases were confirmed with severe COVID-19, while 104 patients (57.78%) were divided into the non-severe group. Fever (56.67%, 102/180) and cough (50.00%, 90/180) were the common symptoms of COVID-19. The death rate was 18.89% (34/180), and severe pneumonia (44.12%, 15/34) and septic shock (23.53%, 8/34) represented the leading reasons for deaths. The older age population, a combination of hypertension and diabetes, the presence of pneumonia, and high levels of inflammatory markers were significantly associated with severity of COVID-19 development (P < 0.05 for all). Altered level of consciousness [odds ratio (OR) = 56.574, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.645-566.940, P = 0.001], high levels of neutrophils (OR = 1.341, 95%CI 1.109-1.621, P = 0.002) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (OR = 1.014, 95%CI 1.003-1.025, P = 0.016) might be indicators for COVID-19 deaths. Dexamethasone treatment could reduce mortality [30.36% (17/56) vs. 50.00% (10/20)] among severe COVID-19 cases, but the results were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The development and prognosis of COVID-19 may be significantly correlated with consciousness status, and the levels of neutrophils and CRP.
Author Contributions Bo Tu, Biao Xu, and Weiwei Chen designed, drafted the manuscript. Marta Lado, Reginald Cole, Fang Chu, Susan Hastings-Spaine, and Mohamed Boie Jalloh contributed to the acquisition and analysis of the data. Junjie Zheng, Sulaiman Lakoh, and Stephen Sevalie conceived the manuscript and substantively revised it. All authors revised and approved the final manuscript. of Interest None.
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Late treatment
is less effective
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