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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 53% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin C  Madamombe et al.  EARLY TREATMENT Is early treatment with vitamin C beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 672 patients in Zimbabwe (April 2020 - April 2022) Lower mortality with vitamin C (p=0.00038) c19early.org Madamombe et al., Pan African Medical J., Mar 2023 Favors vitamin C Favors control

Factors associated with COVID-19 fatality among patients admitted in Mashonaland West Province, Zimbabwe 2020-2022: a secondary data analysis

Madamombe et al., Pan African Medical Journal, doi:10.11604/pamj.2023.44.142.37858
Mar 2023  
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Vitamin C for COVID-19
6th treatment shown to reduce risk in September 2020
 
*, now known with p = 0.000000087 from 70 studies, recognized in 11 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 672 COVID-19 patients in Zimbabwe, showing lower mortality with vitamin C treatment.
This is the 60th of 70 COVID-19 controlled studies for vitamin C, which collectively show efficacy with p=0.000000087 (1 in 11 million).
21 studies are RCTs, which show efficacy with p=0.0012.
risk of death, 53.0% lower, OR 0.47, p < 0.001, adjusted per study, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Madamombe et al., 21 Mar 2023, retrospective, Zimbabwe, peer-reviewed, 9 authors, study period April 2020 - April 2022.
This PaperVitamin CAll
Factors associated with COVID-19 fatality among patients admitted in Mashonaland West Province, Zimbabwe 2020-2022: a secondary data analysis
Kudzai Madamombe, Gerald Shambira, Gift Masoja, Tapiwa Dhliwayo, Tsitsi Patience Juru, Notion Tafara Gombe, Addmore Chadambuka, Mujinga Karakadzai, Mufuta Tshimanga
Pan African Medical Journal, doi:10.11604/pamj.2023.44.142.37858
Introduction: approximately 15% of COVID-19 patients develop symptoms necessitating admission. From 2020 to 2022, Mashonaland West Province had an institutional case fatality rate of 23% against a national rate of 7%. Therefore, we evaluated the COVID-19 admissions in the province to determine the factors associated with COVID-19 mortality. Methods: we conducted an analytical cross-sectional study based on secondary data from isolation centers across the province using all 672 death audit forms and patient records. We obtained data on patient demographics, signs and symptoms, clinical management and oxygen therapy administered, among other things. Data were entered into an electronic form and imported into Epi-info 7 for analysis bivariate and multivariate conducted. Results: we found that being an older man, aOR 1.04 (1.03-1.05), who had diabetes aOR 6.0 (95% CI: 3.8-9.2) and hypertension aOR 4.5 (95% CI: 2.8-6.5) were independent risk factors. Patients put on dexamethasone aOR 2.4 (95% CI: 1.6-3.4) and heparin/clexane aOR 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1-2.2) had a higher mortality risk. However, vitamin C aOR 0.48 (95% CI: 0.31-0.71) and oxygen therapy aOR 0.14 (95% CI: 0.10-0.19) and being pregnant aOR 0.06 (95% CI: 0.02-0.14) were protective. Conclusion: mortality risk increased in older male patients with comorbidities and with those on dexamethasone and heparin therapy. Oxygen therapy and vitamin C were protective. There is a need to conduct further study of the source of these variations in risk across patients to establish the true impact of differences in individuals' mortality.
Competing interests The authors declare no competing interests. Authors' contributions Kudzai Madamombe, Gerald Shambira, Tapiwa Dhliwayo, Gift Masoja, Notion Tafara Gombe, Addmore Chadambuka, Tsitsi Patience Juru and Mufuta Tshimanga: conception, design, acquisition, data collection, analysis and interpretation of data. Kudzai Madamombe and Gerald Shambira wrote the first draft of the manuscript. Addmore Chadambuka, Notion Tafara Gombe, Tsitsi Patience Juru and Mufuta Tshimanga critically revised the draft for important intellectual content. All authors have read and approved the final version of this manuscript.
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