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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 50% Improvement Relative Risk Kyagambiddwa et al. Vitamin C for COVID-19 LATE Is late treatment with vitamin C beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 246 patients in Uganda (May 2020 - August 2022) Lower mortality with vitamin C (not stat. sig., p=0.062) Kyagambiddwa et al., Infection and Drug Resistance, doi:10.2147/idr.s405256 Favors vitamin C Favors control

Thirty-Day Outcomes of Young and Middle-Aged Adults Admitted with Severe COVID-19 in Uganda: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Kyagambiddwa et al., Infection and Drug Resistance, doi:10.2147/idr.s405256
Kyagambiddwa et al., Thirty-Day Outcomes of Young and Middle-Aged Adults Admitted with Severe COVID-19 in Uganda: A Retrospective.., Infection and Drug Resistance, doi:10.2147/idr.s405256
May 2023   Source   PDF  
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Retrospective 246 severe COVID-19 patients in Uganda, showing lower mortality with vitamin C treatment, without statistical significance (p = 0.06).
This is the 61st COVID-19 controlled study for vitamin C, which collectively show efficacy with p=0.00000098. 15 studies are RCTs, which show efficacy with p=0.00013.
This study includes zinc and vitamin C.
risk of death, 50.0% lower, HR 0.50, p = 0.06, adjusted per study, multivariable, Cox proportional hazards.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Kyagambiddwa et al., 11 May 2023, retrospective, Uganda, peer-reviewed, mean age 39.0, 15 authors, study period May 2020 - August 2022.
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Abstract: Infection and Drug Resistance Dovepress open access to scientific and medical research Open Access Full Text Article ORIGINAL RESEARCH Infection and Drug Resistance For personal use only. Thirty-Day Outcomes of Young and Middle-Aged Adults Admitted with Severe COVID-19 in Uganda: A Retrospective Cohort Study Tonny Kyagambiddwa 1,*, Timothy Mwanje Kintu 1,*, Emmanuel Miiro 1,*, Franchesca Nabalamba1, Gloria Suubi Asiimwe1, Anne Marion Namutebi2, Fardous C Abeya3, Boniface A Lumori3, Isaac Ijuka4, Rose K Muhindo1,3, Andrew Mutekanga 1,3, Richard Musinguzi 5, Francis Natuhwera6, Joseph Ngonzi1,7, Edwin Nuwagira 3,8 1 Faculty of Medicine, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda; 2Kabale Regional Referral Hospital, Kabale, Uganda; Department of Medicine, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda; 4Mayanja Memorial Hospital, Mbarara, Uganda; 5Masaka Regional Referral Hospital, Masaka, Uganda; 6Fort Portal Regional Referral Hospital, Fort Portal, Uganda; 7Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda; 8Tuberculosis Treatment Unit, Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, Mbarara, Uganda 3 *These authors contributed equally to this work Correspondence: Tonny Kyagambiddwa; Edwin Nuwagira, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Tel +256782980116; +256779096887, Email; Background: There is scarcity of data regarding young and middle-aged adults hospitalized with severe Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Africa. In this study, we describe the clinical characteristics and 30-day survival among adults aged 18 to 49 years admitted with severe COVID-19 in Uganda. Methods: We reviewed treatment records of patients admitted with severe COVID-19 across five COVID-19 treatment units (CTU) in Uganda. We included individuals aged 18 to 49 years, who had a positive test or met the clinical criteria for COVID-19. We defined severe COVID-19 as having an oxygen saturation <94%, lung infiltrates >50% on imaging and presence of a co-morbidity that required admission in the CTU. Our main outcome was the 30-day survival from the time of admission. We used a Cox proportional hazards model to determine the factors associated with 30-day survival at a 5% level of significance. Results: Of the 246 patient files reviewed, 50.8% (n = 125) were male, the mean ± (standard deviation) age was 39 ± 8 years, majority presented with cough, 85.8% (n = 211) and median C-reactive protein (interquartile range) was 48 (47.5, 178.8) mg/L. The 30-day mortality was 23.9% (59/246). At admission, anemia (hazard ratio (HR): 3.00, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.32–6.82; p = 0.009) and altered mental state (GCS <15) (HR: 6.89, 95% CI: 1.48–32.08, p = 0.014) were significant predictors of 30-day mortality. Conclusion: There was a high 30-day mortality among young and middle-aged adults with severe COVID-19 in Uganda. Early recognition and targeted management of anemia and altered consciousness are needed to improve clinical outcomes. Keywords: COVID-19, Uganda, mortality, young and middle-aged adults
Late treatment
is less effective
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