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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Recovery 41% Improvement Relative Risk Recovery (b) 68% Vitamin C  LINCOLN  LATE TREATMENT  LONG COVID Does vitamin C + L-arginine reduce the risk of Long COVID (PASC)? Prospective study of 1,390 patients in Italy Study compares with another combination of treatments Improved recovery with vitamin C + L-arginine (p<0.000001) Izzo et al., Pharmacological Research, Jul 2022 Favors vitamin C Favors Vitamin B1, ..

Combining L-Arginine with Vitamin C Improves Long-COVID Symptoms: The Nationwide Multicenter LINCOLN Study

Izzo et al., Pharmacological Research, doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2022.106360, LINCOLN
Jul 2022  
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Vitamin C for COVID-19
7th treatment shown to reduce risk in September 2020
*, now known with p = 0.000000087 from 70 studies, recognized in 11 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Long COVID trial comparing L-arginine + vitamin C with multivitamin treatment (vitamin B1, B2, B6, B12, nicotinamide, folic acid, pantothenic acid), showing significant improvement in symptoms with L-arginine + vitamin C treatment.
This is the 49th of 70 COVID-19 controlled studies for vitamin C, which collectively show efficacy with p=0.000000087 (1 in 11 million).
21 studies are RCTs, which show efficacy with p=0.0012.
relative recovery, 41.4% better, RR 0.59, p < 0.001, treatment mean 8.15 (±1.3) n=869, control mean 13.9 (±2.3) n=521, relative symptom score.
relative recovery, 67.5% better, RR 0.33, p < 0.001, treatment 869, control 521, relative Borg score.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Izzo et al., 19 Jul 2022, prospective, Italy, peer-reviewed, 21 authors, this trial compares with another treatment - results may be better when compared to placebo, this trial uses multiple treatments in the treatment arm (combined with L-arginine) - results of individual treatments may vary, LINCOLN trial.
This PaperVitamin CAll
Combining L-Arginine with vitamin C improves long-COVID symptoms: The LINCOLN Survey
Raffaele Izzo, Valentina Trimarco, Pasquale Mone, Massimo Teresita Aloè, Massimo Capra Marzani, Antonio Diana, Giovanni Fazio, Mario Mallardo, Mauro Maniscalco, Giuseppe Marazzi, Nunzia Messina, Simone Mininni, Chiara Mussi, Girolamo Pelaia, Alfio Pennisi, Pierachille Santus, Francesco Scarpelli, Francesco Tursi, Alessandro Zanforlin, Gaetano Santulli, Bruno Trimarco
Pharmacological Research, doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2022.106360
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Flow chart of the study. J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f
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Late treatment
is less effective
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