Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All vitamin C studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin CVitamin C (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 20% Improvement Relative Risk Mortality, ICU -99% Ventilation -200% ICU admission -33% Vitamin C  Mousaviasl et al.  LATE TREATMENT  DB RCT Is late treatment with vitamin C beneficial for COVID-19? Double-blind RCT 401 patients in Iran (November 2020 - May 2021) Trial underpowered to detect differences Mousaviasl et al., Disease and Diagnosis, Jul 2023 Favors vitamin C Favors control

The Effect of a Low Dose of Vitamin C in Patients With COVID-19: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

Mousaviasl et al., Disease and Diagnosis, doi:10.34172/ddj.500
Jul 2023  
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
Vitamin C for COVID-19
6th treatment shown to reduce risk in September 2020
*, now known with p = 0.000000087 from 70 studies, recognized in 11 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
RCT 401 hospitalized COVID-19 patients showing no significant differences with low-dose oral vitamin C (1000mg daily for 5 days).
Although the 20% lower mortality is not statistically significant, it is consistent with the significant 19% lower mortality [9‑27%] from meta analysis of the 42 mortality results to date.
This is the 17th of 21 COVID-19 RCTs for vitamin C, which collectively show efficacy with p=0.0012.
This is the 64th of 70 COVID-19 controlled studies for vitamin C, which collectively show efficacy with p=0.000000087 (1 in 11 million).
risk of death, 20.4% lower, RR 0.80, p = 0.64, treatment 8 of 201 (4.0%), control 10 of 200 (5.0%), NNT 98, day 28.
risk of death, 99.0% higher, RR 1.99, p = 1.00, treatment 2 of 201 (1.0%), control 1 of 200 (0.5%), ICU mortality.
risk of mechanical ventilation, 199.5% higher, RR 3.00, p = 1.00, treatment 1 of 201 (0.5%), control 0 of 200 (0.0%), continuity correction due to zero event (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
risk of ICU admission, 32.7% higher, RR 1.33, p = 0.79, treatment 8 of 201 (4.0%), control 6 of 200 (3.0%).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Mousaviasl et al., 22 Jul 2023, Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial, placebo-controlled, Iran, peer-reviewed, 13 authors, study period November 2020 - May 2021.
This PaperVitamin CAll
The Effect of a Low Dose of Vitamin C in Patients With COVID-19: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial
Sajedeh Mousaviasl, Sara Sayar, Esmat Radmanesh, Bagher Pahlavanzade, Hani Esmaeilian, Mona Ebrahimzadeh, Raha Tabahfar, Maryam Khalili, Tara Borzoo, Saeed Jelvay, Saeid Bitaraf, Mahshid Naghashpour, Sara Mobarak
Disease and Diagnosis, doi:10.34172/ddj.500
Background: Vitamin C is a micronutrient with anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging properties that can strengthen the body's immune system. In this study, it was attempted to assess the clinical efficiency of oral vitamin C in treating COVID-19. Materials and Methods: This double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on 401 patients hospitalized in Taleghani hospital, Abadan, over 18 years of age and with confirmed COVID-19 infection, from November 2020 to May 2021. The patients were randomly assigned to intervention groups (201 people, two tablets per day, each containing 500 mg of vitamin C) and the control group (200 people, placebo, containing starch received for five days). Improvements in clinical symptoms, death from baseline to the 28-day follow-up after the intervention, hospital length of stay, and laboratory values of C-reactive protein (CRP) were some of the considered outcome variables. Results: No significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of the daily improvement of clinical symptoms and the odds of healing from each symptom increased by about 48-50%. The difference in the length of hospital stay between the two groups was close to significant (P = 0.051). There was no significant difference in mortality between the two groups (P = 0.8). There was no difference between the two groups in the laboratory parameters, except for alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.03). Conclusion: Vitamin C had no significant effect on improving patients' clinical symptoms such as fatigue, fever, cough, and shortness of breath.
Authors' Contribution Competing Interests The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this study. Disclaimer This article doesn't have prior publication or presentation in a conference/seminar. Ethical Approval The protocol of this study was approved by Abadan Medical Sciences Ethics Committee with the ethics code IR.ABADANUMS. REC.1398.119. The trial was conducted in accordance with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials ( on April 4, 2020 (identifier: IRCT20200324046850N5; Informed Consent All participants gave their written informed consent after receiving explanations regarding the study objective and methodology.
Bourbour, Dahka, Gholamalizadeh, Akbari, Shadnoush et al., Nutrients in prevention, treatment, and management of viral infections; special focus on coronavirus, Arch Physiol Biochem, doi:10.1080/13813455.2020.1791188
Carr, Rowe, The emerging role of vitamin C in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12113286
Darban, Malek, Memarian, Gohari, Kiani et al., Efficacy of high dose vitamin C, melatonin and zinc in Iranian patients with acute respiratory syndrome due to coronavirus infection: a pilot randomized trial, J Cell Mol Anesth
Fowler Aa 3rd, Truwit, Hite, Morris, Dewilde et al., Effect of vitamin C infusion on organ failure and biomarkers of inflammation and vascular injury in patients with sepsis and severe acute respiratory failure: the CITRIS-ALI randomized clinical trial, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2019.11825
García, Immune response, inflammation, and the clinical spectrum of COVID-19, Front Immunol, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2020.01441
Liu, Zhu, Zhang, Li, Peng, Intravenous high-dose vitamin C for the treatment of severe COVID-19: study protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial, BMJ Open, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-039519
Lykkesfeldt, Michels, Frei, Vitamin C, Adv Nutr, doi:10.3945/an.113.005157
Lykkesfeldt, Tveden-Nyborg, The pharmacokinetics of vitamin C, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu11102412
Majidi, Rabbani, Gholami, Gholamalizadeh, Bourbour et al., The effect of vitamin C on pathological parameters and survival duration of critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 patients: a randomized clinical trial, Front Immunol, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.717816
Moghadam Siahkali, Zarezade, Koolaji, Alinaghi, Zendehdel et al., Safety and effectiveness of high-dose vitamin C in patients with COVID-19: a randomized open-label clinical trial, Eur J Med Res, doi:10.1186/s40001-021-00490-1
Mousavi, Bereswill, Heimesaat, Immunomodulatory and antimicrobial effects of vitamin C, Eur J Microbiol Immunol, doi:10.1556/1886.2019.00016
Munster, Koopmans, Van Doremalen, Van Riel, De, A novel coronavirus emerging in China -key questions for impact assessment, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMp2000929
Rawat, Roy, Maitra, Gulati, Khanna et al., Vitamin C and COVID-19 treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, Diabetes Metab Syndr, doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2021.102324
Ried, Binjemain, Sali, Therapies to prevent progression of COVID-19, including hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, zinc, and vitamin D3 with or without intravenous vitamin C: an international, multicenter, randomized trial, Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.19902
Schloss, Lauche, Harnett, Hannan, Brown et al., Efficacy and safety of vitamin C in the management of acute respiratory infection and disease: a rapid review, Adv Integr Med, doi:10.1016/j.aimed.2020.07.008
Tian, Hu, Niu, Liu, Xu et al., Pulmonary pathology of early-phase 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia in two patients with lung cancer, J Thorac Oncol, doi:10.1016/j.jtho.2020.02.010
Vitamin, Fact Sheet for Health Professionals
Xia, Fan, He, Zhu, Zheng, High-dose intravenous vitamin C attenuates hyperinflammation in severe coronavirus disease 2019, Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2021.111405
Xu, Shi, Wang, Zhang, Huang et al., Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome, Lancet Respir Med, doi:10.1016/s2213-2600(20)30076-x
Zhang, Rao, Li, Zhu, Liu et al., Pilot trial of high-dose vitamin C in critically ill COVID-19 patients, Ann Intensive Care, doi:10.1186/s13613-020-00792-3
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop