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Discovery of the covalent SARS‐CoV‐2 Mpro inhibitors from antiviral herbs via integrating target‐based high‐throughput screening and chemoproteomic approaches

Zhang et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.29208
Nov 2023  
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Quercetin for COVID-19
22nd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2021
*, now with p = 0.0031 from 11 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 75 treatments.
In Vitro study showing that quercetin can potently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 Mpro activity. Screening of 60 antiviral herbs showed Lonicera japonica extract inhibited Mpro in a time-dependent manner, indicating the presence of covalent cysteine-binding inhibitors. UHPLC-HRMS analysis identified 22 Lonicera japonica components that could covalently bind and inhibit Mpro, including quercetin. Biochemical assays validated quercetin as an Mpro inhibitor, with an IC50 of 9.44μM after 63 minutes preincubation. Inactivation kinetics showed quercetin irreversibly inhibits Mpro in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Surface plasmon resonance analysis determined quercetin's binding affinity for Mpro with a KD of 0.308μM. The study highlights an integrative screening approach to identify antiviral compounds from herbs and specifically demonstrates quercetin's potential as an irreversible covalent inhibitor targeting the SARS-CoV-2 main protease.
Bioavailability. Quercetin has low bioavailability and studies typically use advanced formulations to improve bioavailability which may be required to reach therapeutic concentrations.
55 preclinical studies support the efficacy of quercetin for COVID-19:
In Silico studies predict inhibition of SARS-CoV-2, or minimization of side effects, with quercetin or metabolites via binding to the spikeA,28,48,11,31,19,13,27,14,49,30, MproB,9,23,26,31,19,13,27,12,32,50,7,49,25,34,6,4,2,1, RNA-dependent RNA polymeraseC,21, PLproD,26,34, ACE2E,11,26,12,49,30,17, TMPRSS2F,11, helicaseG,23,18, endoribonucleaseH,28, cathepsin LI,15, Wnt-3J,11, FZDK,11, LRP6L,11, ezrinM,29, ADRPN,27, NRP1O,30, EP300P,5, PTGS2Q,12, HSP90AA1R,12,5, matrix metalloproteinase 9S,20, IL-6T,10,24, IL-10U,10, VEGFAV,24, and RELAW,24 proteins. In Vitro studies demonstrate efficacy in Calu-3X,37, A549Y,10, HEK293-ACE2+Z,44, Huh-7AA,14, Caco-2AB,36, Vero E6AC,31,8,36, mTECAD,39, and RAW264.7AE,39 cells. Animal studies demonstrate efficacy in K18-hACE2 miceAF,41, db/db miceAG,39,47, BALB/c miceAH,46, and rats51. Quercetin reduced proinflammatory cytokines and protected lung and kidney tissue against LPS-induced damage in mice46.
Zhang et al., 10 Nov 2023, peer-reviewed, 11 authors. Contact:,
In Vitro studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
This PaperQuercetinAll
Efficacy of mouthwash on reducing salivary SARS-CoV-2 viral load and clinical symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Mingrui Zhang, Nan Meng, Hong Duo, Yuanbo Yang, Qing Dong, Jianqi Gu
BMC Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1186/s12879-023-08669-z
Background COVID-19 has been a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) for a lengthy period of time. The novel coronavirus is primarily spread via aerosols at a short distance, with infected individuals releasing large amounts of aerosols when speaking and coughing. However, there is an open question regarding whether mouthwash could effectively reduce virus transmission during the COVID-19 pandemic and support the prevention of infection among medical workers. Methods Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases were systematically searched from the inception of each database to January 12, 2023 for currently available randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on the effect of mouthwash on novel coronavirus load in the oral cavity in COVID-19 patients. The treatment group received mouthwash for rinsing the mouth, while the control group received a placebo or distilled water for COVID-19 patients. The primary outcomes were CT value and viral load. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using a random-effects model. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to minimize the bias and the impact of heterogeneity. Results Thirteen RCTs were included. Seven studies reported the intervention effect of mouthwash on the CT value of novel coronavirus. The analysis results showed that the mouthwash group had a positive impact on the CT value of novel coronavirus [ SMD = 0.35, 95% CI (0.21, 0.50)] compared with the control group. In addition, subgroup analysis showed a significant positive effect of mouthwash on CT values in the treatment group compared with the control group, with chlorhexidine (CHX) [SMD = 0.33, 95% CI (0.10, 0.56)], povidone-iodine (PVP-I) [SMD = 0.61, 95% CI (0.23, 0.99)], or hydrogen peroxide (HP) [SMD = 1.04, 95% CI (0.30, 1.78)] as an ingredient of the mouthwash. Six studies reported the intervention effect of mouthwash on the viral load, 263 cases in the treatment group and 164 cases in the control group. The analysis results showed that there was no statistical difference between the mouthwash group and the control group in the viral load of novel coronavirus [SMD = -0.06, 95% CI (-0.18, 0.05)]. In the subgroup analysis by measurement time, there were statistically significant differences between the mouthwash and control groups for CT values [SMD = 0.52, 95% CI (0.31, 0.72)] and viral load [SMD = -0.32, 95% CI (-0.56, -0.07)] within 30 min of gargling.
Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at https:// doi. org/ 10. 1186/ s12879-023-08669-z. Additional file 6: Table S1 . Search strategy. Authors' contributions Conceptualization: Qing Dong, Jianqi Gu; Methodology: Nan Meng, Mingrui Zhang, Hong Duo; Formal analysis and investigation: Nan Meng, Mingrui Zhang, Hong Duo, Yuanbo Yang; Writing-original draft preparation: Mingrui Zhang, Nan Meng; Writing-review and editing: Qing Dong, Jianqi Gu; Funding acquisition: Qing Dong, Yuanbo Yang; Resources: Qing Dong, Yuanbo Yang; Supervision: Qing Dong, Jianqi Gu. And all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Declarations Ethics approval and consent to participate All analyses were based on previous published studies, thus no ethical approval and patient consent are required. Consent for publication Not applicable. Competing interests The authors declare no competing interests. • fast, convenient online submission • thorough peer review by experienced researchers in your field • rapid publication on acceptance • support for research data, including large and complex data types • gold Open Access which fosters wider collaboration and increased citations maximum visibility for your research: over 100M website views per year • At BMC, research is always in progress. Learn more Ready to submit your research Ready to submit your..
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This ' 'work begins with biological screening of 60 clinically used antiviral herbal medicines, among ' 'which <jats:italic>Lonicera japonica Flos</jats:italic> (LJF) demonstrated the strongest ' 'anti‐M<jats:sup>pro</jats:sup> effect (IC<jats:sub>50</jats:sub>\u2009=\u200937.82\u2009' 'μg/mL). Mass spectrometry (MS)‐based chemical analysis and chemoproteomic profiling revealed ' 'that LJF extract contains at least 50 constituents, of which 22 exhibited the capability to ' 'covalently modify M<jats:sup>pro</jats:sup>. We subsequently verified the ' 'anti‐M<jats:sup>pro</jats:sup> effects of these covalent binders. Gallic acid and quercetin ' 'were found to potently inhibit severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 ' 'M<jats:sup>pro</jats:sup> in dose‐ and time‐ dependent manners, with the ' 'IC<jats:sub>50</jats:sub> values below 10\u2009µM. The inactivation kinetics, binding ' 'affinity and binding mode of gallic acid and quercetin were further characterized by ' 'fluorescence resonance energy transfer, surface plasmon resonance, and covalent docking ' 'simulations. 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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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