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Inhibitory potential of phytochemicals on five SARS-CoV-2 proteins: in silico evaluation of endemic plants of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Corbo et al., Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment, doi:10.1080/13102818.2023.2222196
Jun 2023  
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Quercetin for COVID-19
22nd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2021
*, now with p = 0.0031 from 11 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 75 treatments.
In Silico study of phytochemicals from 28 plants identifying hesperidin and quercetin as having the highest binding affinity for SARS-CoV-2 RdRp.
The highest affinity for Mpro was observed for genistein and hesperidin, with both compounds forming interactions of interest. Hesperidin and luteolin had the highest binding affinity for PLpro, but no significant interactions were observed. For RdRp, hesperidin and quercetin showed the highest binding affinity, with both forming interactions of interest. Hesperidin and fisetin had the highest binding affinity for spike glycoprotein, and both achieved significant interactions. The highest affinity for NendoU was obtained for hesperidin and isorhamnetin, with both compounds forming interactions of interest.
55 preclinical studies support the efficacy of quercetin for COVID-19:
In Silico studies predict inhibition of SARS-CoV-2, or minimization of side effects, with quercetin or metabolites via binding to the spikeA,28,48,11,31,19,13,27,14,49,30, MproB,9,23,26,31,19,13,27,12,32,50,7,49,25,34,6,4,2,1, RNA-dependent RNA polymeraseC,21, PLproD,26,34, ACE2E,11,26,12,49,30,17, TMPRSS2F,11, helicaseG,23,18, endoribonucleaseH,28, cathepsin LI,15, Wnt-3J,11, FZDK,11, LRP6L,11, ezrinM,29, ADRPN,27, NRP1O,30, EP300P,5, PTGS2Q,12, HSP90AA1R,12,5, matrix metalloproteinase 9S,20, IL-6T,10,24, IL-10U,10, VEGFAV,24, and RELAW,24 proteins. In Vitro studies demonstrate efficacy in Calu-3X,37, A549Y,10, HEK293-ACE2+Z,44, Huh-7AA,14, Caco-2AB,36, Vero E6AC,31,8,36, mTECAD,39, and RAW264.7AE,39 cells. Animal studies demonstrate efficacy in K18-hACE2 miceAF,41, db/db miceAG,39,47, BALB/c miceAH,46, and rats51. Quercetin reduced proinflammatory cytokines and protected lung and kidney tissue against LPS-induced damage in mice46.
Corbo et al., 3 Jun 2023, peer-reviewed, 6 authors. Contact:
In Silico studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
This PaperQuercetinAll
Inhibitory potential of phytochemicals on five SARS-CoV-2 proteins: in silico evaluation of endemic plants of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Tarik Corbo, Abdurahim Kalajdzic, Dzenita Omerkic, Farah Catic, Naris Pojskic, Kasim Bajrovic
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment, doi:10.1080/13102818.2023.2222196
The outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has prompted global health concerns. In response, researchers have been conducting investigations on active compounds in plants that may hold the potential to inhibit the proliferation of the virus. The aim of this study was to simulate and predict structural interactions of selected compounds isolated from 28 endemic plants of Bosnia and Herzegovina against the main protease (Mpro), papain-like protease (PLpro), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), spike glycoprotein and uridylate-specific endoribonuclease (NendoU) of SARS-CoV-2. The majority of compounds, especially hesperidin, showed great binding affinity to the target proteins. The highest affinity for Mpro was observed for genistein and hesperidin, while in terms of structural interactions, both compounds achieved interactions of interest. Hesperidin and luteolin were the compounds with the highest binding affinity for PLpro, but no significant interactions were observed. For RdRp, hesperidin and quercetin showed the highest binding affinity, where both compounds formed interactions of interest. Hesperidin and fisetin were the compounds with the highest binding affinity for spike glycoprotein, and both compounds achieved significant interactions. The highest affinity for NendoU was obtained for hesperidin and isorhamnetin, where both compounds formed interactions of interest. Although these findings appear encouraging, further research is needed, which includes in vitro and in vivo assessments, along with clinical trials, to provide evidence for the potential therapeutic uses of these plants.
Authors' contributions Conceptualization and design: KB, TC; supervision: KB, NP; methods: AK, DZO, FC, TC; data collection and/or processing: AK, DZO, FC, TC; analysis and/or interpretation: AK, DZO, FC, TC; manuscript writing: AK, TC; critical review: KB, NP. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Disclosure statement The authors report no conflict of interest.
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