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Utilization of quercetin flavonoid compounds in onion (Allium cepa L.) as an inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein against ACE2 receptors

Azmi et al., 11th International Seminar on New Paradigm and Innovation on Natural Sciences and its Application, doi:10.1063/5.0140285
Jun 2023  
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Quercetin for COVID-19
22nd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2021
*, now known with p = 0.0031 from 11 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,200+ studies for 70+ treatments.
In Silico study showing high affinity binding between the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and quercetin, and analysis of the quercetin content of onion.
55 preclinical studies support the efficacy of quercetin for COVID-19:
In Silico studies predict inhibition of SARS-CoV-2, or minimization of side effects, with quercetin or metabolites via binding to the spikeA,28,48,11,31,19,13,27,14,49,30, MproB,9,23,26,31,19,13,27,12,32,50,7,49,25,34,6,4,2,1, RNA-dependent RNA polymeraseC,21, PLproD,26,34, ACE2E,11,26,12,49,30,17, TMPRSS2F,11, helicaseG,23,18, endoribonucleaseH,28, cathepsin LI,15, Wnt-3J,11, FZDK,11, LRP6L,11, ezrinM,29, ADRPN,27, NRP1O,30, EP300P,5, PTGS2Q,12, HSP90AA1R,12,5, matrix metalloproteinase 9S,20, IL-6T,10,24, IL-10U,10, VEGFAV,24, and RELAW,24 proteins. In Vitro studies demonstrate efficacy in Calu-3X,37, A549Y,10, HEK293-ACE2+Z,44, Huh-7AA,14, Caco-2AB,36, Vero E6AC,31,8,36, mTECAD,39, and RAW264.7AE,39 cells. Animal studies demonstrate efficacy in K18-hACE2 miceAF,41, db/db miceAG,39,47, BALB/c miceAH,46, and rats51. Quercetin reduced proinflammatory cytokines and protected lung and kidney tissue against LPS-induced damage in mice46.
Azmi et al., 2 Jun 2023, peer-reviewed, 6 authors.
In Silico studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
This PaperQuercetinAll
Utilization of Quercetin Flavonoid Compounds in Onion (Allium cepa L.) As an Inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Against ACE2 Receptors
Syifa Zahara, Kultsum Azmi, Melisa Andriani, Sinta Aulia Rahmah, Reza Lailul Farobi, Azlya Luke, Nur Ahlina
The world is facing the spread of a disease called COVID-19 which is referred to as a pandemic. The main problem that causes COVID-19 is the coronavirus, this virus will attack the respiratory system. The coronavirus that is spreading is SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 is a virus that belongs to the Betacoronavirus family, which is similar to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Inside the host cell, the spike envelope (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 can interact with the Angiotensin-converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. The penetration of SARS-CoV-2 into the human body can be inhibited by the flavonoid compound quercetin in onion. Onion (Allium cepa L.) contain quercetin compounds with very broad pharmacological effects. The quercetin flavonoid compound in onion was incubated with the COVID-19 vaccine as a representation of SARS-CoV-2. This study aimed to determine the inhibitory activity of Spike protein by quercetin against ACE2 receptors. This study used spectroflourometric analysis to determine the inhibitory activity of Spike protein by quercetin against the ACE2 receptor. Before reaching the spectroflourometric analysis stage, the onion's maceration stage was carried out with 98% methanol as solvent to obtain flavonoid extract. Furthermore, the determination of the quercetin content was carried out by spectrophotometric analysis using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The measurement of quercetin levels used a standard solution of quercetin with a concentration series of 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 ppm. The absorbance was determined by the measurement results on a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. A standard curve was made to obtain a linear equation that will be used to determine the percent content of quercetin in the sample. Through spectrofluorometric analysis, . This analysis uses excitation wavelengths of 340 nm and 490 nm emission waves using 9.15 nm bandwidth to prevent overlapping. The results of this analysis can be proven by the relative fluorescent units (RFU) of protein S in SARS-CoV-2 which will be higher than that of RFU protein S that has been incubated with quercetin to form a protein complex. This is an indicator of the successful inhibition of spike protein activity by quercetin.
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