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Computational identification of selected bioactive compounds from Cedrus deodara as inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 main protease: a pharmacoinformatics study

Shaik et al., Indian Drugs, doi:10.53879/id.61.02.13859
Feb 2024  
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Quercetin for COVID-19
22nd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2021
*, now known with p = 0.0031 from 11 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
In Silico study showing that quercetin binds strongly to the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro). Authors found that out of 49 phytoconstituents from Cedrus deodara, quercetin exhibited the lowest binding energy of approximately -7.2 kcal/mol when interacting with Mpro, forming 4 hydrogen bonds and 1 hydrophobic interaction. Molecular dynamics simulations confirmed the stability of the quercetin-Mpro complex over a 50ns simulation period.
In Silico studies predict inhibition of SARS-CoV-2, or minimization of side effects, with quercetin or metabolites via binding to the spike Note A, Alavi, Azmi (B), Chandran, Kandeil, Mandal, Moschovou, Nguyen, Pan, Thapa (B), Şimşek, Mpro Note B, Akinwumi, Alanzi, Ibeh, Kandeil, Mandal, Moschovou, Nguyen, Qin, Rehman, Sekiou (B), Singh, Thapa (B), Wang, Zhang, Shaik, Waqas, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase Note C, Corbo, PLpro Note D, Ibeh, Zhang, ACE2 Note E, Chandran, Ibeh, Qin, Thapa (B), Şimşek, Alkafaas, TMPRSS2 Note F, Chandran, helicase Note G, Alanzi, Singh (B), endoribonuclease Note H, Alavi, cathepsin L Note I, Ahmed, Wnt-3 Note J, Chandran, FZD Note K, Chandran, LRP6 Note L, Chandran, ezrin Note M, Chellasamy, ADRP Note N, Nguyen, NRP1 Note O, Şimşek, EP300 Note P, Hasanah, PTGS2 Note Q, Qin, HSP90AA1 Note R, Qin, Hasanah, matrix metalloproteinase 9 Note S, Sai Ramesh, IL-6 Note T, Yang, Yang (B), IL-10 Note U, Yang, VEGFA Note V, Yang (B), and RELA Note W, Yang (B) proteins. In Vitro studies demonstrate efficacy in Calu-3 Note X, DiGuilio, A549 Note Y, Yang, HEK293-ACE2+ Note Z, Singh (C), Huh-7 Note AA, Pan, Caco-2 Note AB, Roy, Vero E6 Note AC, Kandeil, El-Megharbel, Roy, mTEC Note AD, Wu, and RAW264.7 Note AE, Wu cells. Animal studies demonstrate efficacy in K18-hACE2 mice Note AF, Aguado, db/db mice Note AG, Wu, Wu (B), BALB/c mice Note AH, Shaker, and rats El-Megharbel (B). Quercetin reduced proinflammatory cytokines and protected lung and kidney tissue against LPS-induced damage in mice Shaker.
Shaik et al., 28 Feb 2024, peer-reviewed, 3 authors. Contact:
In Silico studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
This PaperQuercetinAll
Aminabee Shaik, Lakshmana Rao Atmakuri
INDIAN DRUGS, doi:10.53879/id.61.02.13859
Amid the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, the quest for potent antiviral treatments intensifies. This study focuses on the potential of bioactive compounds from the Himalayan cedar Cedrus deodara against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Specifically targeting the main protease (M Pro ) and spike protein, the study employs docking trials and molecular dynamics simulations. Compounds such as quercetin, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol, and cedeodarin exhibit notable binding affinity, surpassing the reference drug favipiravir. Molecular dynamics simulations affirm the stability of these complexes throughout the simulation period. While these findings underscore promising interactions, it is crucial to emphasize the need for further research and experimental validation to fully explore the therapeutic capabilities of C. deodara in combatting Covid-19.
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