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All Studies   Meta Analysis   Recent:  
COVID-19 Mortality Risk Correlates Inversely with Vitamin D3 Status, and a Mortality Rate Close to Zero Could Theoretically Be Achieved at 50 ng/mL 25(OH)D3: Results of a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Borsche et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13103596 (date from earlier preprint) (meta analysis)
Borsche et al., COVID-19 Mortality Risk Correlates Inversely with Vitamin D3 Status, and a Mortality Rate Close to Zero Could.., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13103596 (date from earlier preprint) (meta analysis)
Sep 2021   Source   PDF  
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Meta analysis of 8 studies with vitamin D levels measured pre-infection or on the day of hospital admission, showing a correlation between the levels and mortality. Authors recommend combining vaccination with vitamin D supplementation to maintain levels above 50 ng/ml. Authors extrapolate to predict a point of zero mortality, however there is no reason to predict a linear relationship where zero mortality would be reached.
Currently there are 104 vitamin D studies and meta analysis shows:
OutcomeImprovement
Mortality37% lower [28‑44%]
Ventilation26% lower [-2‑46%]
ICU admission50% lower [33‑62%]
Hospitalization20% lower [8‑31%]
Cases12% fewer [3‑21%]
Borsche et al., 25 Sep 2021, peer-reviewed, 3 authors.
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Abstract: nutrients Systematic Review COVID-19 Mortality Risk Correlates Inversely with Vitamin D3 Status, and a Mortality Rate Close to Zero Could Theoretically Be Achieved at 50 ng/mL 25(OH)D3: Results of a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Lorenz Borsche 1, *, Bernd Glauner 2 and Julian von Mendel 3 1 2 3 *   Citation: Borsche, L.; Glauner, B.; von Mendel, J. COVID-19 Mortality Risk Correlates Inversely with Vitamin D3 Status, and a Mortality Rate Close to Zero Could Theoretically Be Achieved at 50 ng/mL 25(OH)D3: Results of a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3596. https://doi.org/10.3390/ nu13103596 Academic Editor: John H. White Received: 28 September 2021 Accepted: 11 October 2021 Independent Researcher, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany Independent Researcher, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany; bgl@cellprobe.de Artificial Intelligence, IU International University of Applied Sciences, D-99084 Erfurt, Germany; pub@derjulian.net Correspondence: borsche@gmx.de Abstract: Background: Much research shows that blood calcidiol (25(OH)D3) levels correlate strongly with SARS-CoV-2 infection severity. There is open discussion regarding whether low D3 is caused by the infection or if deficiency negatively affects immune defense. The aim of this study was to collect further evidence on this topic. Methods: Systematic literature search was performed to identify retrospective cohort as well as clinical studies on COVID-19 mortality rates versus D3 blood levels. Mortality rates from clinical studies were corrected for age, sex, and diabetes. Data were analyzed using correlation and linear regression. Results: One population study and seven clinical studies were identified, which reported D3 blood levels preinfection or on the day of hospital admission. The two independent datasets showed a negative Pearson correlation of D3 levels and mortality risk (r(17) = −0.4154, p = 0.0770/r(13) = −0.4886, p = 0.0646). For the combined data, median (IQR) D3 levels were 23.2 ng/mL (17.4–26.8), and a significant Pearson correlation was observed (r(32) = −0.3989, p = 0.0194). Regression suggested a theoretical point of zero mortality at approximately 50 ng/mL D3. Conclusions: The datasets provide strong evidence that low D3 is a predictor rather than just a side effect of the infection. Despite ongoing vaccinations, we recommend raising serum 25(OH)D levels to above 50 ng/mL to prevent or mitigate new outbreaks due to escape mutations or decreasing antibody activity. Keywords: mortality; vitamin D; calcidiol; calcitriol; D3; COVID-19; inflammation; SARS-CoV-2; ARDS; immune status; immunodeficiency; renin; angiotensin; ACE2; virus infection; cytokine release syndrome; CRS Published: 14 October 2021 Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/
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