COVID-19 Mortality Risk Correlates Inversely with Vitamin D3 Status, and a Mortality Rate Close to Zero Could Theoretically Be Achieved at 50 ng/mL 25(OH)D3: Results of a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
et al., Nutrients,
COVID-19 Mortality Risk Correlates Inversely with Vitamin D3 Status, and a Mortality Rate Close to Zero Could..
, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13103596 (date from earlier preprint) (meta analysis)
Meta analysis of 8 studies with vitamin D levels measured pre-infection or on the day of hospital admission, showing a correlation between the levels and mortality. Authors recommend combining vaccination with vitamin D supplementation to maintain levels above 50 ng/ml. Authors extrapolate to predict a point of zero mortality, however there is no reason to predict a linear relationship where zero mortality would be reached.
Currently there are 104 vitamin D studies
and meta analysis shows:
Borsche et al., 25 Sep 2021, peer-reviewed, 3 authors.
COVID-19 Mortality Risk Correlates Inversely with Vitamin D3
Status, and a Mortality Rate Close to Zero Could Theoretically
Be Achieved at 50 ng/mL 25(OH)D3: Results of a Systematic
Review and Meta-Analysis
Lorenz Borsche 1, *, Bernd Glauner 2 and Julian von Mendel 3
Citation: Borsche, L.; Glauner, B.;
von Mendel, J. COVID-19 Mortality
Risk Correlates Inversely with
Vitamin D3 Status, and a Mortality
Rate Close to Zero Could
Theoretically Be Achieved at 50
ng/mL 25(OH)D3: Results of a
Systematic Review and
Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2021, 13,
Academic Editor: John H. White
Received: 28 September 2021
Accepted: 11 October 2021
Independent Researcher, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany
Independent Researcher, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany; email@example.com
Artificial Intelligence, IU International University of Applied Sciences, D-99084 Erfurt, Germany;
Abstract: Background: Much research shows that blood calcidiol (25(OH)D3) levels correlate strongly
with SARS-CoV-2 infection severity. There is open discussion regarding whether low D3 is caused
by the infection or if deficiency negatively affects immune defense. The aim of this study was
to collect further evidence on this topic. Methods: Systematic literature search was performed
to identify retrospective cohort as well as clinical studies on COVID-19 mortality rates versus D3
blood levels. Mortality rates from clinical studies were corrected for age, sex, and diabetes. Data
were analyzed using correlation and linear regression. Results: One population study and seven
clinical studies were identified, which reported D3 blood levels preinfection or on the day of hospital
admission. The two independent datasets showed a negative Pearson correlation of D3 levels and
mortality risk (r(17) = −0.4154, p = 0.0770/r(13) = −0.4886, p = 0.0646). For the combined data,
median (IQR) D3 levels were 23.2 ng/mL (17.4–26.8), and a significant Pearson correlation was
observed (r(32) = −0.3989, p = 0.0194). Regression suggested a theoretical point of zero mortality at
approximately 50 ng/mL D3. Conclusions: The datasets provide strong evidence that low D3 is a
predictor rather than just a side effect of the infection. Despite ongoing vaccinations, we recommend
raising serum 25(OH)D levels to above 50 ng/mL to prevent or mitigate new outbreaks due to escape
mutations or decreasing antibody activity.
Keywords: mortality; vitamin D; calcidiol; calcitriol; D3; COVID-19; inflammation; SARS-CoV-2;
ARDS; immune status; immunodeficiency; renin; angiotensin; ACE2; virus infection;
cytokine release syndrome; CRS
Published: 14 October 2021
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