Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Results
Abstract
All vitamin D studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin DVitamin D (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality -6% Improvement Relative Risk Ventilation 40% Discharge -27% Vitamin D for COVID-19  Szeto et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 93 patients in the USA Lower ventilation (p=0.21) and discharge (p=0.5), not sig. c19early.org Szeto et al., Endocrine Research, December 2020 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Vitamin D Status and COVID-19 Clinical Outcomes in Hospitalized Patients

Szeto et al., Endocrine Research, doi:10.1080/07435800.2020.1867162
Dec 2020  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,200+ studies for 70+ treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 93 hospitalized patients with vitamin D levels 1-365 days before admission, not showing significant differences with vitamin D deficiency or vitamin D levels. Vitamin D levels may vary significantly throughout the year creating a major cofounder that authors do not adjust for.
This is the 34th of 196 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 11,637 vigintillion).
risk of death, 5.6% higher, RR 1.06, p = 1.00, high D levels 14 of 58 (24.1%), low D levels 8 of 35 (22.9%).
risk of mechanical ventilation, 39.7% lower, RR 0.60, p = 0.21, high D levels 10 of 58 (17.2%), low D levels 10 of 35 (28.6%), NNT 8.8.
risk of no hospital discharge, 26.7% higher, RR 1.27, p = 0.50, high D levels 21 of 58 (36.2%), low D levels 10 of 35 (28.6%).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Szeto et al., 30 Dec 2020, retrospective, USA, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Vitamin D Status and COVID-19 Clinical Outcomes in Hospitalized Patients
Betsy Szeto, Jason E Zucker, Elijah D Lasota, Mishaela R Rubin, Marcella D Walker, Michael T Yin, Adi Cohen
Endocrine Research, doi:10.1080/07435800.2020.1867162
Context: Populations severely affected by COVID-19 are also at risk for vitamin D deficiency. Common risk factors include older age, chronic illness, obesity, and non-Caucasian race. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with risk for respiratory infections and failure, susceptibility and response to therapy for enveloped virus infection, and immune-mediated inflammatory reaction. Objective: To test the hypothesis that 25-hydroxyvitamin D[25(OH)D] deficiency is a risk factor for severity of COVID-19 respiratory and inflammatory complications. Design: We examined the relationship between prehospitalization 25(OH)D levels (obtained 1-365 days prior to admission) and COVID-19 clinical outcomes in 700 COVID-19 positive hospitalized patients.
Disclosure Statement The authors have nothing to disclose.
References
Abrishami, Dalili, Mohammadi, Possible association of vitamin D status with lung involvement and outcome in patients with COVID-19: a retrospective study, Eur J Nutr, doi:10.1007/s00394-020-02411-0
Alipio, Vitamin D supplementation could possibly improve clinical outcomes of patients infected with Coronavirus
Altieri, Cavalier, Bhattoa, Vitamin D testing: advantages and limits of the current assays, Eur J Clin Nutr, doi:10.1038/s41430-019-0553-3
Argenziano, Bruce, Slater, Characterization and clinical course of 1000 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 in New York: retrospective case series, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.m1996
Baktash, Hosack, Patel, Vitamin D status and outcomes for hospitalised older patients with COVID-19, Postgrad Med J, doi:10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-138712
Beard, Bearden, Striker, Vitamin D and the anti-viral state, J Clin Virol, doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2010.12.006
Berry, Hesketh, Power, Hypponen, Vitamin D status has a linear association with seasonal infections and lung function in British adults, Br J Nutr, doi:10.1017/S0007114511001991
Braun, Chang, Mahadevappa, Association of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and mortality in the critically ill, Crit Care Med, doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e318206ccdf
Chen, Wu, Chen, Clinical characteristics of 113 deceased patients with coronavirus disease 2019: retrospective study, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.m1091
Daneshkhah, Agrawal, Eshein, Subramanian, Roy et al., The possible role of vitamin D in suppressing cytokine storm and associated mortality in COVID-19 patients
Forrest, Stuhldreher, Prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency in US adults, Nutr Res, doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2010.12.001
Gennari, Vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality
Ginde, Mansbach, Camargo, Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and upper respiratory tract infection in the Third National health and nutrition examination survey, Arch Intern Med, doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2008.560
Gloth Fm 3 Rd, Gundberg, Hollis, Haddad, Jr et al., Vitamin D deficiency in homebound elderly persons, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.1995.03530210037027
Greiller, Martineau, Modulation of the immune response to respiratory viruses by vitamin D, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu7064240
Hastie, Mackay, Ho, Vitamin D concentrations and COVID-19 infection in UK Biobank, Diabetes Metab Syndr, doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.050
Henrina, Lim, Pranata, COVID-19 and misinformation: how an infodemic fuelled the prominence of vitamin D, Br J Nutr, doi:10.1017/S0007114520002950
Hewison, Antibacterial effects of vitamin D, Nat Rev Endocrinol, doi:10.1038/nrendo.2010.226
Holick, Vitamin D status: measurement, interpretation, and clinical application, Ann Epidemiol, doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2007.12.001
Huang, Zhu, Xue, Clinical findings of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 in Jiangsu province, China: A retrospective, multi-center study, PLoS Negl Trop Dis, doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0008280
Jassil, Sharma, Bikle, Wang, Vitamin D binding protein and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels: emerging clinical applications, Endocr Pract, doi:10.4158/EP161604.RA
Karatekin, Kaya, Salihoglu, Balci, Nuhoglu, Association of subclinical vitamin D deficiency in newborns with acute lower respiratory infection and their mothers, Eur J Clin Nutr, doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602960
Kempker, Tangpricha, Ziegler, Martin, Vitamin D in sepsis: from basic science to clinical impact, Crit Care, doi:10.1186/cc11252
Killerby, Link-Gelles, Haight, Characteristics associated with hospitalization among patients with COVID-19 -metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, March, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6925e1external
Kim, Bostwick, Social vulnerability and racial inequality in COVID-19 deaths in Chicago, Health Educ Behav, doi:10.1177/1090198120929677
Laaksi, Ruohola, Tuohimaa, An association of serum vitamin D concentrations < 40 nmol/L with acute respiratory tract infection in young finnish men, Am J Clin Nutr, doi:10.1093/ajcn/86.3.714
Laird, Rhodes, Kenny, Vitamin D and Inflammation: potential implications for severity of Covid-19, Ir Med J
Madden, Feldman, Chun, Critically Ill children have low vitamin D-binding protein, influencing bioavailability of vitamin D, Ann Am Thorac Soc, doi:10.1513/AnnalsATS.201503-160OC
Martineau, Jolliffe, Hooper, Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.i6583
Meltzer, Best, Zhang, Vokes, Arora et al., Association of vitamin d deficiency and treatment with COVID-19 incidence
Millett, Jones, Benkeser, Assessing differential impacts of COVID-19 on black communities, Ann Epidemiol, doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2020.05.003
O'connor, Exploring links between Coronavirus and vitamin D, The New York Times
Olliver, Spelmink, Hiew, Meyer-Hoffert, Henriques-Normark et al., Immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D on innate and adaptive immune responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae, J Infect Dis, doi:10.1093/infdis/jit355
Pizzini, Aichner, Sahanic, Impact of vitamin d deficiency on COVID-19-A prospective analysis from the CovILD registry, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12092775
Raharusuna, Priambada, Budiarti, Agung, Budi, Patterns of COVID-19 mortality and vitamin D: an Indonesian study
Thickett, Moromizato, Litonjua, Association between prehospital vitamin D status and incident acute respiratory failure in critically ill patients: a retrospective cohort study, BMJ Open Respir Res, doi:10.1136/bmjresp-2014-000074
Umhau, Casting sunlight on an epidemic -is vitamin D a critical host factor to prevent COVID-19? MedPage Today
Vanherwegen, Gysemans, Mathieu, Regulation of immune function by vitamin d and its use in diseases of immunity, Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am, doi:10.1016/j.ecl.2017.07.010
Wayse, Yousafzai, Mogale, Filteau, Association of subclinical vitamin D deficiency with severe acute lower respiratory infection in Indian children under 5, Eur J Clin Nutr, doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601845
{ 'DOI': '10.1080/07435800.2020.1867162', 'ISSN': ['0743-5800', '1532-4206'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07435800.2020.1867162', 'alternative-id': ['10.1080/07435800.2020.1867162'], 'assertion': [ { 'label': 'Peer Review Statement', 'name': 'peerreview_statement', 'order': 1, 'value': 'The publishing and review policy for this title is described in its Aims & ' 'Scope.'}, { 'URL': 'http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?show=aimsScope&journalCode=ierc20', 'label': 'Aim & Scope', 'name': 'aims_and_scope_url', 'order': 2, 'value': 'http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?show=aimsScope&journalCode=ierc20'}, { 'group': {'label': 'Publication History', 'name': 'publication_history'}, 'label': 'Received', 'name': 'received', 'order': 0, 'value': '2020-11-16'}, { 'group': {'label': 'Publication History', 'name': 'publication_history'}, 'label': 'Revised', 'name': 'revised', 'order': 1, 'value': '2020-12-09'}, { 'group': {'label': 'Publication History', 'name': 'publication_history'}, 'label': 'Accepted', 'name': 'accepted', 'order': 2, 'value': '2020-12-17'}, { 'group': {'label': 'Publication History', 'name': 'publication_history'}, 'label': 'Published', 'name': 'published', 'order': 3, 'value': '2020-12-30'}], 'author': [ { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, ' 'New York, USA'}], 'family': 'Szeto', 'given': 'Betsy', 'sequence': 'first'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Medicine, Columbia University Vagelos College of ' 'Physicians and Surgeons, New York, USA'}], 'family': 'Zucker', 'given': 'Jason E.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Medicine, Columbia University Vagelos College of ' 'Physicians and Surgeons, New York, USA'}], 'family': 'LaSota', 'given': 'Elijah D.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Medicine, Columbia University Vagelos College of ' 'Physicians and Surgeons, New York, USA'}], 'family': 'Rubin', 'given': 'Mishaela R.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Medicine, Columbia University Vagelos College of ' 'Physicians and Surgeons, New York, USA'}], 'family': 'Walker', 'given': 'Marcella D.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Medicine, Columbia University Vagelos College of ' 'Physicians and Surgeons, New York, USA'}], 'family': 'Yin', 'given': 'Michael T.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Medicine, Columbia University Vagelos College of ' 'Physicians and Surgeons, New York, USA'}], 'family': 'Cohen', 'given': 'Adi', 'sequence': 'additional'}], 'container-title': 'Endocrine Research', 'container-title-short': 'Endocrine Research', 'content-domain': {'crossmark-restriction': True, 'domain': ['www.tandfonline.com']}, 'created': { 'date-parts': [[2020, 12, 31]], 'date-time': '2020-12-31T03:17:06Z', 'timestamp': 1609384626000}, 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 4, 19]], 'date-time': '2021-04-19T13:38:13Z', 'timestamp': 1618839493000}, 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2024, 4, 2]], 'date-time': '2024-04-02T14:20:09Z', 'timestamp': 1712067609774}, 'is-referenced-by-count': 33, 'issue': '2', 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2020, 12, 30]]}, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '2', 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2021, 4, 3]]}}, 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/07435800.2020.1867162', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'member': '301', 'original-title': [], 'page': '66-73', 'prefix': '10.1080', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2020, 12, 30]]}, 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2020, 12, 30]]}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2021, 4, 3]]}, 'publisher': 'Informa UK Limited', 'reference': [ {'DOI': '10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.050', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0001'}, {'DOI': '10.1136/bmj.m1091', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0002'}, {'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pntd.0008280', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0003'}, {'DOI': '10.1136/bmj.m1996', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0004'}, {'DOI': '10.1016/j.nutres.2010.12.001', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0005'}, { 'DOI': '10.1001/jama.1995.03530210037027', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0006'}, { 'author': 'Laird E', 'issue': '5', 'journal-title': 'Ir Med J', 'key': 'cit0007', 'volume': '113', 'year': '2020'}, { 'key': 'cit0008', 'unstructured': 'Umhau JC. Casting sunlight on an epidemic - is vitamin D a critical host ' 'factor to prevent COVID-19? MedPage Today. 2020.'}, { 'key': 'cit0009', 'unstructured': 'O’Connor A. Exploring links between Coronavirus and vitamin D. The New ' 'York Times. June 10, 2020, 2020.'}, {'DOI': '10.1001/archinternmed.2008.560', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0010'}, {'DOI': '10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602960', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0011'}, {'DOI': '10.1093/ajcn/86.3.714', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0012'}, {'DOI': '10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601845', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0013'}, {'DOI': '10.1136/bmj.i6583', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0014'}, {'DOI': '10.1017/S0007114511001991', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0015'}, {'DOI': '10.1097/CCM.0b013e318206ccdf', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0016'}, {'DOI': '10.1136/bmjresp-2014-000074', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0017'}, {'DOI': '10.1016/j.jcv.2010.12.006', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0018'}, {'DOI': '10.3390/nu7064240', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0019'}, {'DOI': '10.1038/nrendo.2010.226', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0020'}, {'DOI': '10.1093/infdis/jit355', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0021'}, {'DOI': '10.1016/j.ecl.2017.07.010', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0022'}, {'author': 'Meltzer DO', 'journal-title': 'medRxiv', 'key': 'cit0023', 'year': '2020'}, {'DOI': '10.3390/nu12092775', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0024'}, { 'DOI': '10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-138712', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0025'}, {'DOI': '10.1007/s00394-020-02411-0', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0026'}, {'DOI': '10.4158/EP161604.RA', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0027'}, {'DOI': '10.1186/cc11252', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0028'}, {'DOI': '10.1513/AnnalsATS.201503-160OC', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0029'}, {'author': 'Daneshkhah A', 'journal-title': 'medRxiv', 'key': 'cit0030', 'year': '2020'}, {'DOI': '10.1016/j.annepidem.2007.12.001', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0031'}, { 'key': 'cit0032', 'unstructured': 'Vitamin D status and COVID-19 clinical outcomes in hospitalized ' 'patients, Columbia University 2020. ' 'https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.nk98sf7rq.'}, { 'author': 'Gennari L', 'key': 'cit0033', 'volume-title': 'Paper presented at: ASMBR 2020 Annual Meeting Virtual Event', 'year': '2020'}, {'DOI': '10.2139/ssrn.3571484', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0034'}, {'DOI': '10.2139/ssrn.3585561', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0035'}, {'DOI': '10.1017/S0007114520002950', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0036'}, {'DOI': '10.1038/s41430-019-0553-3', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0037'}, {'DOI': '10.15585/mmwr.mm6925e1external', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0038'}, {'DOI': '10.1177/1090198120929677', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0039'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.annepidem.2020.05.003', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'cit0040'}], 'reference-count': 40, 'references-count': 40, 'relation': {}, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/07435800.2020.1867162'}}, 'score': 1, 'short-title': [], 'source': 'Crossref', 'subject': ['Endocrinology', 'General Medicine'], 'subtitle': [], 'title': 'Vitamin D Status and COVID-19 Clinical Outcomes in Hospitalized Patients', 'type': 'journal-article', 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/tandf_crossmark_01', 'volume': '46'}
Loading..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit