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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 23% Improvement Relative Risk Ventilation -45% Discharge 33% Hospitalization time 22% Vitamin D for COVID-19  Reis et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Prospective study of 214 patients in Brazil Higher discharge (p=0.18) and shorter hospitalization (p=0.057), not sig. Reis et al., The American J. Clinical .., May 2021 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Influence of vitamin D status on hospital length of stay and prognosis in hospitalized patients with moderate to severe COVID-19: a multicenter prospective cohort study

Reis et al., The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqab151
May 2021  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Prospective study of 220 hospitalized patients in Brazil, showing no significant differences based on vitamin D levels. There was a trend (p=0.057) towards longer hospital stay for patients with levels <10ng/mL.
This is the 67th of 196 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 11,637 vigintillion).
risk of death, 23.0% lower, HR 0.77, p = 0.82, high D levels (≥10ng/mL) 198, low D levels (<10ng/mL) 16, model 2, Cox proportional hazards.
risk of mechanical ventilation, 45.0% higher, HR 1.45, p = 0.77, high D levels (≥10ng/mL) 198, low D levels (<10ng/mL) 16, adjusted per study, model 2, multivariable, Cox proportional hazards.
risk of no hospital discharge, 33.3% lower, HR 0.67, p = 0.18, high D levels (≥10ng/mL) 198, low D levels (<10ng/mL) 16, adjusted per study, inverted to make HR<1 favor high D levels (≥10ng/mL), model 2, multivariable, Cox proportional hazards.
hospitalization time, 22.2% lower, relative time 0.78, p = 0.06, high D levels (≥10ng/mL) 191, low D levels (<10ng/mL) 15, model 2.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Reis et al., 21 May 2021, prospective, Brazil, peer-reviewed, 19 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Influence of vitamin D status on hospital length of stay and prognosis in hospitalized patients with moderate to severe COVID-19: a multicenter prospective cohort study
Bruna Z Reis, Alan L Fernandes, Lucas P Sales, Mayara D Santos, Caroline C Dos Santos, Ana J Pinto, Karla F Goessler, Andre S Franco, Camila Sc Duran, Carla Br Silva, Marina B Macêdo, Henrique Hh Dalmolin, Janaína Baggio, Guilherme Gm Balbi, Leila Antonangelo, Valeria F Caparbo, Bruno Gualano, Igor H Murai, Rosa Mr Pereira
Background: Vitamin D acts as a mediator in the immune system regulating antiviral mechanisms and inflammatory processes. Vitamin D insufficiency has been suggested as a potential risk factor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, although its impact on the prognosis of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. Objective: This multicenter prospective cohort study was designed to investigate whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration is associated with hospital length of stay and prognosis in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Methods: Patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 (n = 220) were recruited from 2 hospitals in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were categorized as follows: <10 ng/mL, 10 to <20 ng/mL, 20 to <30 ng/mL, and ≥30 ng/mL, and <10 ng/mL and ≥10 ng/mL. The primary outcome was hospital length of stay and the secondary outcomes were the rate of patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation and mortality. Results: There were no significant differences in hospital length of stay when the 4 25(OH)D categories were compared (P = 0.120). Patients exhibiting 25(OH)D <10 ng/mL showed a trend (P = 0.057) for longer hospital length of stay compared with those with 25(OH)D ≥10 ng/mL [9.0 d (95% CI: 6.4, 11.6 d) vs. 7.0 d (95% CI: 6.6, 7.4 d)]. The multivariable Cox proportional hazard models showed no significant associations between 25(OH)D and primary or secondary outcomes. Conclusions: Among hospitalized patients with moderate to severe COVID-19, those with severe 25(OH)D deficiency (<10 ng/mL) exhibited a trend for longer hospital length of stay compared with patients with higher 25(OH)D concentrations. This association was not significant in the multivariable Cox regression model. Prospective studies should test whether correcting severe 25(OH)D deficiency could improve the prognosis of patients with COVID-19.
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