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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 54% Improvement Relative Risk Ahmad et al. Vitamin D for COVID-19 Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective study in multiple countries Lower mortality with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.032) Ahmad et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.11.21253361 Favors vitamin D Favors control
Mean Vitamin D levels in 19 European Countries & COVID-19 Mortality over 10 months
Ahmad et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.11.21253361 (Preprint)
Ahmad et al., Mean Vitamin D levels in 19 European Countries & COVID-19 Mortality over 10 months, medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.11.21253361 (Preprint)
Mar 2021   Source   PDF  
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Retrospective 19 European countries showing countries with mean vitamin D levels > 50nmol/L have a 2.2 times lower risk of mortality (p = 0.032) compared to those with mean levels < 50 nmol/L.
risk of death, 53.6% lower, RR 0.46, p = 0.03, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels, >50nmol/L.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Ahmad et al., 12 Mar 2021, multiple countries, preprint, 4 authors.
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Population based mean Vitamin D levels in 19 European Countries & COVID-19 Mortality
Amar Ahmad, Christian Heumann, Raghib Ali, Tim Oliver
Objectives: Reports early in the epidemic linking low mean national Vitamin D level with increased COVID-19 death, and until recently little research on the impact of Vitamin D deficiency on severity of COVID-19, led to this update of the initial report studying mortality up to the end of January 2021. Design and Setting: Coronavirus pandemic data for 19 European countries were
Adams-Prassl, Cloyne, Dias, Parey, Ziliak, The COVID-19 Economic Crisis, Fisc Stud
Bates, Mächler, Bolker, Fitting Linear Mixed-Effects Models Using lme4, Journal of Statistical Software
Chen, Zhou, Dong, Qu, Gong et al., Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study, Lancet
Dyer, Covid-19: Excess deaths point to hidden toll in South Africa as cases surge, BMJ
Gruber-Bzura, Vitamin D and Influenza-Prevention or Therapy?, Int J Mol Sci
Hasell, Mathieu, Beltekian, Macdonald, Giattino et al., A cross-country database of COVID-19 testing, Sci Data
Hastie, Mackay, Ho, Celis-Morales, Katikireddi et al., Corrigendum to "Vitamin D concentrations and COVID-19 infection in UK Biobank, Diabetes Metabol Syndr: Clin Res Rev
Hastie, Mackay, Ho, Celis-Morales, Katikireddi et al., Vitamin D concentrations and COVID-19 infection in UK Biobank, Diabetes Metab Syndr
Hollis, Johnson, Hulsey, Ebeling, Wagner, Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: double-blind, randomized clinical trial of safety and effectiveness, J Bone Miner Res
Ilie, Stefanescu, Smith, The role of vitamin D in the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 infection and mortality, Aging Clin Exp Res
Jolliffe, Camargo, Sluyter, Aglipay, Aloia et al., Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of aggregate data from randomised controlled trials
Karahan, Katkat, Impact of Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D Level on Mortality in Patients with COVID-19 in Turkey, J Nutr Health Aging
Kaufman, Niles, Kroll, Bi, Holick, SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, PLoS One
Kiely, Cashman, Summary Outcomes of the ODIN Project on Food Fortification for Vitamin D Deficiency Prevention, Int J Environ Res Public Health
Li, Guan, Wu, Wang, Zhou et al., Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia, N Engl J Med
Lips, Cashman, Lamberg-Allardt, Bischoff-Ferrari, Obermayer-Pietsch et al., Current vitamin D status in European and Middle East countries and strategies to prevent vitamin D deficiency: a position statement of the European Calcified Tissue Society, Eur J Endocrinol
Loembe, Tshangela, Salyer, Varma, Ouma et al., COVID-19 in Africa: the spread and response, Nat Med
Maghbooli, Sahraian, Ebrahimi, Pazoki, Kafan et al., Vitamin D sufficiency, a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at least 30 ng/mL reduced risk for adverse clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 infection, PLoS One
Martineau, Jolliffe, Hooper, Greenberg, Aloia et al., Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data, BMJ
Mele, Magazzino, Pollution, economic growth, and COVID-19 deaths in India: a machine learning evidence, Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
Meltzer, Best, Zhang, Vokes, Arora et al., Association of Vitamin D Status and Other Clinical Characteristics With COVID-19 Test Results, JAMA Netw Open
Merzon, Tworowski, Gorohovski, Vinker, Cohen et al., Low plasma 25(OH) vitamin D level is associated with increased risk of COVID-19 infection: an Israeli populationbased study, FEBS J
Nikniaz, Akbarzadeh, Hosseinifard, Hosseini, of COVID-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis, doi:10.1101/2021.01.04.21249219v1.full.pdf
Panagiotou, Tee, Ihsan, Athar, Marchitelli et al., Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 are associated with greater disease severity, Clin Endocrinol
Pereira, Damascena, Azevedo, De Almeida Oliveira, Da et al., None
Radujkovic, Hippchen, Tiwari-Heckler, Dreher, Boxberger, Vitamin D Deficiency and Outcome of COVID-19 Patients, Nutrients
Radujkovic, Reply to: "Vitamin D Insufficiency May Account for Almost Nine of Ten COVID-19 Deaths: Time to Act. Comment on: Vitamin D Deficiency and Outcome of COVID-19 Patients, Nutrients
Raisi-Estabragh, Mccracken, Bethell, Cooper, Cooper et al., Greater risk of severe COVID-19 in Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic populations is not explained by cardiometabolic, socioeconomic or behavioural factors, or by 25(OH)-vitamin D status: study of 1326 cases from the UK Biobank, J Public Health (Oxf)
Rct, A language and environment for statistical computing
Singh, Kaur, Singh, Revisiting the role of vitamin D levels in the prevention of COVID-19 infection and mortality in European countries post infections peak, Aging Clin Exp Res
Spiro, Buttriss, Vitamin D: An overview of vitamin D status and intake in Europe, Nutr Bull
Strang, Furst, Schultz, Excess deaths from COVID-19 correlate with age and socio-economic status. A database study in the Stockholm region, Ups J Med Sci
Sun, Chen, Viboud, Early epidemiological analysis of the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak based on crowdsourced data: a population-level observational study, Lancet Digit Health
Sutherland, Zhou, Leach, Hypponen, Differences and determinants of vitamin D deficiency among UK biobank participants: A cross-ethnic and socioeconomic study, Clin Nutr
Vickers, Altman, Statistics notes: missing outcomes in randomised trials, BMJ
Wang, Peng, Jackknife Empirical likelihood intervals for Spearman's rho. Peng, L, North American Actuarial Journal
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