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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 21% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Ahmad et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective study in multiple countries (March 2020 - June 2023) Lower mortality with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.013) c19early.org Ahmad et al., Nutrients, March 2021 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Association between Average Vitamin D Levels and COVID-19 Mortality in 19 European Countries—A Population-Based Study

Ahmad et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu15224818 (date from preprint)
Mar 2021  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,200+ studies for 70+ treatments. c19early.org
Analysis of 19 European countries showing significantly lower mortality with higher vitamin D levels.
risk of death, 20.6% lower, RR 0.79, p = 0.01, >50nmol/L.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Ahmad et al., 12 Mar 2021, multiple countries, peer-reviewed, 6 authors, study period 1 March, 2020 - 14 June, 2023. Contact: amar.ahmad@cancer.org.uk (corresponding author), nirmin.juber@nyu.edu, hman1e20@soton.ac.uk, christian.heumann@stat.uni-muenchen.de, raghib.ali@mrc-epid.cam.ac.uk, r.t.oliver@qmul.ac.uk.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Association between Average Vitamin D Levels and COVID-19 Mortality in 19 European Countries—A Population-Based Study
Amar S Ahmad, Nirmin F Juber, Heba Al-Naseri, Christian Heumann, Raghib Ali, Tim Oliver
Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu15224818
Early epidemic reports have linked low average 25(OH) vitamin D levels with increased COVID-19 mortality. However, there has been limited updated research on 25(OH) vitamin D and its impact on COVID-19 mortality. This study aimed to update the initial report studying the link between vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 mortality by using multi-country data in 19 European countries up to the middle of June 2023. COVID-19 data for 19 European countries included in this study were
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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{ 'DOI': '10.3390/nu15224818', 'ISSN': ['2072-6643'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu15224818', 'abstract': '<jats:p>Early epidemic reports have linked low average 25(OH) vitamin D levels with increased ' 'COVID-19 mortality. However, there has been limited updated research on 25(OH) vitamin D and ' 'its impact on COVID-19 mortality. This study aimed to update the initial report studying the ' 'link between vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 mortality by using multi-country data in 19 ' 'European countries up to the middle of June 2023. COVID-19 data for 19 European countries ' 'included in this study were downloaded from Our World in Data from 1 March 2020, to 14 June ' '2023, and were included in the statistical analysis. The 25(OH) vitamin D average data were ' 'collected by conducting a literature review. A generalized estimation equation model was used ' 'to model the data. Compared to European countries with 25(OH) vitamin D levels of ≤50 nmol/L, ' 'European countries with 25(OH) vitamin D average levels greater than &gt;50 nmol/L had lower ' 'COVID-19 mortality rates (RR = 0.794, 95% CI: 0.662–0.953). A statistically significant ' 'negative Spearman rank correlation was observed between 25(OH) vitamin D average levels and ' 'COVID-19 mortality. We also found significantly lower COVID-19 mortality rates in countries ' 'with high average 25(OH) vitamin D levels. Randomized trials on vitamin D supplementation are ' 'needed. In the meantime, the issue of vitamin D use should be debated in relation to the ' 'ongoing discussions of national post-COVID-19 resilience against future pandemics.</jats:p>', 'alternative-id': ['nu15224818'], 'author': [ { 'affiliation': [{'name': 'Cancer Intelligence, Cancer Research UK, Oxford OX4 9GZ, UK'}], 'family': 'Ahmad', 'given': 'Amar S.', 'sequence': 'first'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7316-5530', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Public Health Research Center, New York University Abu Dhabi, ' 'Abu Dhabi P.O. 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