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Impact of the vitamin D deficiency on COVID-19 infection and mortality in Asian countries

Jayawardena et al., Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2021.03.006
Mar 2021  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
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Analysis of Asian countries finding that prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and lower vitamin D levels were associated with COVID-19 infection and mortality.
Positive correlations were observed for prevalence of vitamin D deficiency with COVID-19 infection (r = 0.76, p = 0.002) and mortality (r = 0.65, p = 0.03), after predicting with confounding factors. Mean vitamin D level had a significant negative correlation with COVID-19 infection (r = 0.77; p = 0.04) and mortality (r = 0.80, p = 0.03) when combining with confounders.
Jayawardena et al., 13 Mar 2021, peer-reviewed, 4 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Impact of the vitamin D deficiency on COVID-19 infection and mortality in Asian countries
Ranil Jayawardena, Dhanushya T Jeyakumar, Tormalli V Francis, Anoop Misra
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2021.03.006
Background and aims: COVID-19 is a pandemic that has affected beyond 100 million and caused nearly 3 million deaths globally. Vitamin D is a known risk factor for COVID-19. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association of prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and mean vitamin D level with COVID-19 infection and mortality in Asia, predicting with other confounding factors such as median age, obesity, and diabetes. Methods: COVID-19 infections and mortalities among the Asian countries were retrieved from the Worldometer website. Information on prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and mean vitamin D values in each Asian country was retrieved through literature searching on PubMed® and Google scholar. The associations between COVID-19 infections and mortalities with prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and mean vitamin D level were explored with correlation coefficients. As a predictive analysis, multiple linear regression was carried out with all confounders. Results: Positive correlations were observed for prevalence of vitamin D deficiency with COVID-19 infections (r ¼ 0.55; p ¼ 0.01; R 2 ¼ 0.31) and mortalities (r ¼ 0.50; p ¼ 0.01; R 2 ¼ 0.25). Moreover, the associations for the COVID-19 infections and mortalities improved to r ¼ 0.76 (p ¼ 0.002; R 2 ¼ 0.58) and r ¼ 0.65 (p ¼ 0.03; R 2 ¼ 0.42), respectively, after predicting with confounding factors. Similarly, mean vitamin D level had a significant negative correlation with COVID-19 infections (r ¼ À0.77; p ¼ 0.04; R 2 ¼ 0.59) and mortalities (r ¼ À0.80; p ¼ 0.03; R 2 ¼ 0.63) when combining with confounders. Conclusion: Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is significantly positively associated whereas the mean vitamin D level is significantly negatively associated with both infection and mortality rate of COVID-19 among Asian countries upon predicting with all confounders.
Authors' contributions RJ conceived and designed the study. DTJ, TVF and RJ collected data. DTJ analysed the data. DTJ, TVF, and RJ drafted the manuscript. AM revised the paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Ethics approval and consent to participate Not relevant for this study. Declaration of competing interest The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.
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