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A critical update on the role of mild and serious vitamin D deficiency prevalence and the COVID-19 epidemic in Europe
Bakaloudi et al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2021.111441
Bakaloudi et al., A critical update on the role of mild and serious vitamin D deficiency prevalence and the COVID-19 epidemic in.., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2021.111441
Jan 2021   Source   PDF  
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Analysis of vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 cases and mortality in European countries showing significant correlation between mortality and prevalence of both mild vitamin D deficiency (r = 0.634, p = 0.003) and severe vitamin D deficiency (r = 0.538, p = 0.021).
Bakaloudi et al., 29 Jan 2021, retrospective, multiple countries, peer-reviewed, 2 authors.
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Abstract: Nutrition 93 (2022) 111441 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Nutrition journal homepage: Applied nutritional investigation A critical update on the role of mild and serious vitamin D deficiency prevalence and the COVID-19 epidemic in Europe Dimitra Rafailia Bakaloudi M.D., Michail Chourdakis Ph.D., M.D., M.P.H. * Laboratory of Hygiene, Social & Preventive Medicine and Medical Statistics, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Campus, Thessaloniki, Greece A R T I C L E I N F O Article History: Received 30 March 2021 Received in revised form 30 June 2021 Accepted 22 July 2021 Keywords: Vitamin D Deficiency COVID-19 Infections Mortalities Europe A B S T R A C T Objectives: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a pandemic, affecting nearly 180 million people worldwide as of June 22, 2021. Previous studies have examined the association between the mean vitamin D (Vit D) concentration of each country and COVID-19 infection and mortality rate in European countries. The aim of the present study was to critically evaluate the relationship between prevalence of mild and severe Vit D deficiency in each country and COVID-19 infection, recovery, and mortality using updated data and a different methodological approach. Methods: Information on Vit D concentration or deficiency for each country was retrieved through a literature search. COVID-19 infections and mortalities per million people and total recoveries, as of June 22, 2021, were obtained. The associations between Vit D deficiency and COVID-19 infection, recovery, and mortality were explored using correlation coefficients and scatterplots. Results: Non-significant correlations were observed between both number of COVID-19 infections (r = 0.363, P = 0.116) and number of recoveries (r = 0.388, P = 0.091) and the prevalence of mild Vit D deficiency (<50 nmol/L). Similarly, non-significant correlations were observed between both infections (r = 0.215, P = 0.392) and recoveries (r = 0.242, P = 0.332) and the prevalence of severe Vit D deficiency (<30 nmol/L). Significant correlations were found between COVID-19 mortality and prevalence of both mild Vit D deficiency (r = 0.634, P = 0.003) and severe Vit D deficiency (r = 0.538, P = 0.021). Conclusions: The prevalence of neither mild nor severe Vit D deficiency was associated with the number of COVID-19 infections in European countries. Thus, it is an important parameter to consider when implementing preventive measures to face COVID-19. © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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