Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
Peg.. Lambda

All vitamin D studies
Meta analysis
Home COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin DVitamin D (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Bromhexine Meta Metformin Meta
Budesonide Meta
Cannabidiol Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta
Curcumin Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Ensovibep Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Peg.. Lambda Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Ivermectin Meta
Lactoferrin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis   Recent:  

A critical update on the role of mild and serious vitamin D deficiency prevalence and the COVID-19 epidemic in Europe

Bakaloudi et al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2021.111441
Jan 2021  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Analysis of vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 cases and mortality in European countries showing significant correlation between mortality and prevalence of both mild vitamin D deficiency (r = 0.634, p = 0.003) and severe vitamin D deficiency (r = 0.538, p = 0.021).
Bakaloudi et al., 29 Jan 2021, retrospective, multiple countries, peer-reviewed, 2 authors.
All Studies   Meta Analysis   Submit Updates or Corrections
This PaperVitamin DAll
A critical update on the role of mild and serious vitamin D deficiency prevalence and the COVID-19 epidemic in Europe
Dimitra Rafailia Bakaloudi, Ph.D Michail Chourdakis
Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2021.111441
Objectives: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a pandemic, affecting nearly 180 million people worldwide as of June 22, 2021. Previous studies have examined the association between the mean vitamin D (Vit D) concentration of each country and COVID-19 infection and mortality rate in European countries. The aim of the present study was to critically evaluate the relationship between prevalence of mild and severe Vit D deficiency in each country and COVID-19 infection, recovery, and mortality using updated data and a different methodological approach. Methods: Information on Vit D concentration or deficiency for each country was retrieved through a literature search. COVID-19 infections and mortalities per million people and total recoveries, as of June 22, 2021, were obtained. The associations between Vit D deficiency and COVID-19 infection, recovery, and mortality were explored using correlation coefficients and scatterplots. Results: Non-significant correlations were observed between both number of COVID-19 infections (r = 0.363, P = 0.116) and number of recoveries (r = 0.388, P = 0.091) and the prevalence of mild Vit D deficiency (<50 nmol/L). Similarly, non-significant correlations were observed between both infections (r = 0.215, P = 0.392) and recoveries (r = 0.242, P = 0.332) and the prevalence of severe Vit D deficiency (<30 nmol/L). Significant correlations were found between COVID-19 mortality and prevalence of both mild Vit D deficiency (r = 0.634, P = 0.003) and severe Vit D deficiency (r = 0.538, P = 0.021). Conclusions: The prevalence of neither mild nor severe Vit D deficiency was associated with the number of COVID-19 infections in European countries. Thus, it is an important parameter to consider when implementing preventive measures to face COVID-19.
Supplementary materials Supplementary material associated with this article can be found in the online version at doi:10.1016/j.nut.2021.111441.
Adebayo, Itkonen, Lilja, Lundqvist, Laatikainen, Prevalence and determinants of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among three immigrant groups in Finland: evidence from a population-based study using standardised 25-hydroxyvitamin D data, Public Health Nutr
Ali, Role of vitamin D in preventing of COVID-19 infection, progression and severity, J Infect Public Health
Annweiler, Beaudenon, Gautier, Simon, Dub Ee et al., COvid-19 and high-dose VITamin D supplementation TRIAL in high-risk older patients (COVIT-TRIAL): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial, Trials
Arteh, Narra, Nair, Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in chronic liver disease, Dig Dis Sci
Aspell, Laird, Healy, Shannon, Lawlor et al., The prevalence and determinants of vitamin D status in community-dwelling older adults: results from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), Nutrients
Bahrami, Sadeghnia, Tabatabaeizadeh, Bahrami-Taghanaki, Behboodi et al., Genetic and epigenetic factors influencing vitamin D status, J Cell Physiol
Bakaloudi, Halloran, Rippin, Oikonomidou, Dardavesis et al., Intake and adequacy of the vegan diet: a systematic review of the evidence, Clin Nutr
Bergman, The link between vitamin D and COVID-19: distinguishing facts from fiction, J Intern Med
Borissova, Shinkov, Vlahov, Dakovska, Todorov et al., Vitamin D status in Bulgaria-winter data, Arch Osteoporos
Brodin, Why is COVID-19 so mild in children?, Acta Paediatr
Carpagnano, Lecce, Quaranta, Zito, Buonamico et al., Vitamin D deficiency as a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19, J Endocrinol Invest
Cashman, Kiely, Kinsella, Durazo-Arvizu, Tian et al., Evaluation of Vitamin D Standardization Program protocols for standardizing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D data: a case study of the program's potential for national nutrition and health surveys, Am J Clin Nutr
Cereda, Bogliolo, Lobascio, Barichella, Zecchinelli et al., Vitamin D supplementation and outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients from the outbreak area of Lombardy. Italy, Nutrition
Chaudhry, Dranitsaris, Mubashir, Bartoszko, Riazi, A country level analysis measuring the impact of government actions, country preparedness and socioeconomic factors on COVID-19 mortality and related health outcomes, EClinicalMedicine
Cherrie, Clemens, Colandrea, Feng, Webb et al., Ultraviolet A radiation and COVID-19 deaths in the USA with replication studies in England and Italy
Clark, Jit, Warren-Gash, Guthrie, Wang et al., Global, regional, and national estimates of the population at increased risk of severe COVID-19 due to underlying health conditions in 2020: a modelling study, Lancet Glob Health
Coli C Bari C, Keser, Bituh, Rumbak, Samarin et al., Vitamin D status and prevalence of inadequacy in Croatian population
Cui, Xu, Li, Qiao, Han et al., Vitamin D receptor activation regulates microglia polarization and oxidative stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats and angiotensin II-exposed microglial cells: role of renin-angiotensin system, Redox Biol
Daneshkhah, Agrawal, Eshein, Subramanian, Roy et al., Evidence for possible association of vitamin D status with cytokine storm and unregulated inflammation in COVID-19 patients, Aging Clin Exp Res
Dimakopoulos, Magriplis, Mitsopoulou, Karageorgou, Bakogianni et al., Association of serum vitamin D status with dietary intake and sun exposure in adults, Clin Nutr ESPEN
Duarte, Carvalheiro, Rodrigues, Dias, Marques et al., Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its predictors in the Portuguese population: a nationwide population-based study, Arch Osteoporos
Díaz, Opez, Paz-Graniel, Alonso-Sanz, Es Baldero et al., Vitamin D deficiency in primary health care users at risk in Spain, Nutr Hosp
El Din, Fayed, Nokeety, Abdulazim, Salem, Vitamin-D deficiency is encountered in almost all Egyptian stage 3À5 chronic kidney disease patients in spite of the sunny weather, Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl
Elmadfa, Meyer, Wottawa, Wagner, Hasenegger, Vitamin D intake and status in Austria and its effects on some health indicators, Austin J Nutr Metab
Fedele, Francesco, Riso, Collo, Obesity, malnutrition, and trace element deficiency in the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic: an overview, Nutrition
Giuliani, Barbieri, Pierro, Rossi, Widmann et al., LC-MS/MS based 25(OH)D status in a large Southern European outpatient cohort: gender-and age-specific differences, Eur J Nutr
Gorman, Weller, Investigating the potential for ultraviolet light to modulate morbidity and mortality from COVID-19: a narrative review and update, Front Cardiovasc Med
Gupta, Vashi, Trukova, Lis, Lammersfeld, Prevalence of serum vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in cancer: review of the epidemiological literature, Exp Ther Med
Hoge, Donneau, Streel, Kolh, Chapelle et al., Vitamin D deficiency is common among adults in Wallonia (Belgium, 51°30 0 North): findings from the Nutrition, Environment and Cardio-Vascular Health study, Nutr Res
Holick, Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease, Am J Clin Nutr
Hribar, Hristov, Gregori C M, Blaznik, Zaletel et al., Nutrihealth study: seasonal variation in vitamin D status among the Slovenian adult and elderly population, Nutrients
Ilie, Stefanescu, Smith, The role of vitamin D in the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 infection and mortality, Aging Clin Exp Res
Isaia, Di Emoz, Maluta, Fountoulakis, Ceccon et al., Does solar ultraviolet radiation play a role in COVID-19 infection and deaths? an environmental ecological study in Italy, Sci Total Environ
Jayawardena, Sooriyaarachchi, Chourdakis, Jeewandara, Ranasinghe, Enhancing immunity in viral infections, with special emphasis on COVID-19: a review, Diabetes Metab Syndr
Karonova, Andreeva, Nikitina, Belyaeva, Mokhova et al., Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the north-west region of Russia: a crosssectional study, J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol
Kasapidou, Oikonomidou, Chourdakis, Vitamin D status among Mediterranean regions, Hippokratia
Kazemi, Mohammadi, Aghababaee, Golzarand, Clark et al., Association of vitamin D status with SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 severity: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Kuster, Pfister, Burkard, Zhou, Twerenbold et al., SARS-CoV2: should inhibitors of the reninÀangiotensin system be withdrawn in patients with COVID-19?, Eur Heart J
Li, Li, Prevalence and influencing factors of vitamin D deficiency in chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study, Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther
Li, Qiao, Uskokovic, Xiang, Zheng et al., Vitamin D: a negative endocrine regulator of the reninÀangiotensin system and blood pressure, J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol
Li, Zeng, Cao, Liu, Ping et al., Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced rat acute lung injury via suppressing the ERK1/2 and NF-kB signaling pathways, Sci Rep
Lips, Cashman, Lamberg-Allardt, Bischoff-Ferrari, Obermayer-Pietsch et al., Current vitamin D status in European and Middle East countries and strategies to prevent vitamin D deficiency: a position statement of the European Calcified Tissue Society, Eur J Endocrinol
Martineau, Jolliffe, Hooper, Greenberg, Aloia et al., Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data, BMJ
Mathieu, Badenhoop, Vitamin D and type 1 diabetes mellitus: state of the art, Trends Endocrinol Metab
Meltzer, Best, Zhang, Vokes, Arora et al., Association of vitamin D levels, race/ethnicity, and clinical characteristics with COVID-19 test results, JAMA Netw Open
Mendes, Darling, Hart, Morse, Murphy et al., Impact of high latitude, urban living and ethnicity on 25-hydroxyvitamin D status: a need for multidisciplinary action?, J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol
Mishal, Effects of different dress styles on vitamin D levels in healthy young Jordanian women, Osteoporos Int
Murdaca, Pioggia, Negrini, Vitamin D and COVID-19: an update on evidence and potential therapeutic implications, Clin Mol Allergy
Neale, Khan, Lucas, Waterhouse, Whiteman et al., The effect of sunscreen on vitamin D: a review, Br J Dermatol
Niculescu, Capatina, Dusceac, Caragheorgheopol, Ghemigian et al., Seasonal variation of serum vitamin D levels in Romania, Arch Osteoporos
Parohan, Yaghoubi, Seraji, Javanbakht, Sarraf et al., Risk factors for mortality in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies, Aging Male
Petrenya, Lamberg-Allardt, Melhus, Broderstad, Brustad, Vitamin D status in a multi-ethnic population of northern Norway: the SAMINOR 2 Clinical Survey, Public Health Nutr
Rabenberg, Scheidt-Nave, Busch, Rieckmann, Hintzpeter et al., Vitamin D status among adults in Germany-results from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1), BMC Public Health
Rhodes, Subramanian, Laird, Griffin, Kenny, Perspective: vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 severity-plausibly linked by latitude, ethnicity, impacts on cytokines, ACE2 and thrombosis, J Intern Med
Sakem, Nock, Stanga, Medina, Nydegger et al., Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and immunoglobulins in an older Swiss cohort: results of the Senior Labor Study, BMC Med
Schramm, Lahner, J€ Ockel K-H, Erbel, F€ et al., Recall Study Group. Impact of season and different vitamin D thresholds on prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in epidemiological cohortsa note of caution, Endocrine
Shchubelka, Vitamin D status in adults and children in Transcarpathia, Ukraine in 2019, BMC Nutr
Singh, Kaur, Singh, Revisiting the role of vitamin D levels in the prevention of COVID-19 infection and mortality in European countries post infections peak, Aging Clin Exp Res
Snijder, Van Dam, Visser, Deeg, Dekker et al., Adiposity in relation to vitamin D status and parathyroid hormone levels: a population-based study in older men and women, J Clin Endocrinol Metab
Sokolovic, Alimanovic-Alagic, Dzananovic, Cavaljuga, Beslic et al., Vitamin D status in Bosnia and Herzegovina: the crosssectional epidemiological analysis, Osteoporos Int
Souberbielle, Massart, Brailly-Tabard, Cavalier, Chanson, Prevalence and determinants of vitamin D deficiency in healthy French adults: the VARI-ETE study, Endocrine
Stafford, Covid-19: why Germany's case fatality rate seems so low, BMJ
Szeto, Zucker, Lasota, Rubin, Walker et al., Vitamin D status and COVID-19 clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients, Endocr Res
S€ Oderstr€ Om, Rosenblad, Adolfsson, Bergkvist, Malnutrition is associated with increased mortality in older adults regardless of the cause of death, Br J Nutr
The, Diabetes, Endocrinology, Vitamin D and COVID-19: why the controversy?, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol
Theodoratou, Tzoulaki, Zgaga, Ioannidis, Vitamin D and multiple health outcomes: umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised trials, BMJ
Van Schoor, Lips, Worldwide vitamin D status
Wacker, Holick, Vitamin D-effects on skeletal and extraskeletal health and the need for supplementation, Nutrients
Webb, Kift, Durkin, 'brien, Vail et al., The role of sunlight exposure in determining the vitamin D status of the U.K. white adult population, Br J Dermatol
Worldometer, COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic
Zheng, Peng, Xu, Zhao, Liu et al., Risk factors of critical & mortal COVID-19 cases: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis, J Infect
Zhu, Wei, Niu, The novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan. China, Glob Health Res Policy
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop