A critical update on the role of mild and serious vitamin D deficiency prevalence and the COVID-19 epidemic in Europe
Bakaloudi et al.
, A critical update on the role of mild and serious vitamin D deficiency prevalence and the COVID-19 epidemic in..
, Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2021.111441
Analysis of vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 cases and mortality in European countries showing significant correlation between mortality and prevalence of both mild vitamin D deficiency (r = 0.634, p = 0.003) and severe vitamin D deficiency (r = 0.538, p = 0.021).
Bakaloudi et al., 29 Jan 2021, retrospective, multiple countries, peer-reviewed, 2 authors.
Abstract: Nutrition 93 (2022) 111441
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journal homepage: www.nutritionjrnl.com
Applied nutritional investigation
A critical update on the role of mild and serious vitamin D deﬁciency
prevalence and the COVID-19 epidemic in Europe
Dimitra Rafailia Bakaloudi M.D., Michail Chourdakis Ph.D., M.D., M.P.H. *
Laboratory of Hygiene, Social & Preventive Medicine and Medical Statistics, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Campus,
A R T I C L E
I N F O
Received 30 March 2021
Received in revised form 30 June 2021
Accepted 22 July 2021
A B S T R A C T
Objectives: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a pandemic, affecting nearly 180 million
people worldwide as of June 22, 2021. Previous studies have examined the association between the mean
vitamin D (Vit D) concentration of each country and COVID-19 infection and mortality rate in European countries. The aim of the present study was to critically evaluate the relationship between prevalence of mild and
severe Vit D deﬁciency in each country and COVID-19 infection, recovery, and mortality using updated data
and a different methodological approach.
Methods: Information on Vit D concentration or deﬁciency for each country was retrieved through a literature
search. COVID-19 infections and mortalities per million people and total recoveries, as of June 22, 2021, were
obtained. The associations between Vit D deﬁciency and COVID-19 infection, recovery, and mortality were
explored using correlation coefﬁcients and scatterplots.
Results: Non-signiﬁcant correlations were observed between both number of COVID-19 infections (r = 0.363,
P = 0.116) and number of recoveries (r = 0.388, P = 0.091) and the prevalence of mild Vit D deﬁciency (<50
nmol/L). Similarly, non-signiﬁcant correlations were observed between both infections (r = 0.215, P = 0.392)
and recoveries (r = 0.242, P = 0.332) and the prevalence of severe Vit D deﬁciency (<30 nmol/L). Signiﬁcant
correlations were found between COVID-19 mortality and prevalence of both mild Vit D deﬁciency
(r = 0.634, P = 0.003) and severe Vit D deﬁciency (r = 0.538, P = 0.021).
Conclusions: The prevalence of neither mild nor severe Vit D deﬁciency was associated with the number of
COVID-19 infections in European countries. Thus, it is an important parameter to consider when implementing preventive measures to face COVID-19.
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