Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
Peg.. Lambda

All vitamin D studies
Meta analysis
Home COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin DVitamin D (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Bromhexine Meta Metformin Meta
Budesonide Meta
Cannabidiol Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta
Curcumin Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Ensovibep Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Peg.. Lambda Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Ivermectin Meta
Lactoferrin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis   Recent:  
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 78% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Katz et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 133,125 patients in the USA Fewer cases with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.001) Katz et al., Nutrition, December 2020 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Increased risk for Covid-19 in patients with Vitamin D deficiency

Katz et al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2020.111106
Dec 2020  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Retrospective database analysis showing patients with vitamin D deficiency were 4.6 times more likely to be COVID-19 positive, p<0.001.
This is the 30th of 185 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 115 vigintillion).
risk of case, 78.4% lower, RR 0.22, p < 0.001, high D levels 85 of 101,175 (0.1%), low D levels 87 of 31,950 (0.3%), NNT 531, adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Katz et al., 4 Dec 2020, retrospective, population-based cohort, USA, peer-reviewed, 3 authors.
All Studies   Meta Analysis   Submit Updates or Corrections
This PaperVitamin DAll
Increased risk for COVID-19 in patients with vitamin D deficiency
Joseph Katz, Sijia Yue, Ph Wei D Xue
Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2020.111106
Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre -including this research content -immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.
Ali, Role of vitamin D in preventing of COVID-19 infection, progression and severity, J Infect Public Health
Amrein, Scherkl, Hoffmann, Neuwersch-Sommeregger, K€ Ostenberger et al., Vitamin D deficiency 2.0: an update on the current status worldwide, Eur J Clin Nutr
Anbarcioglu, Kirtiloglu, Ozt€ Urk, Kolbakir, Acıkg€ Oz et al., Vitamin D deficiency in patients with aggressive periodontitis, Oral Dis
Asyary, Veruswati, Sunlight exposure increased Covid-19 recovery rates: a study in the central pandemic area of Indonesia, Sci Total Environ
Benskin, A basic review of the preliminary evidence that COVID-19 risk and severity is increased in vitamin D deficiency, Front Public Health
Castillo, Costa, Barrios, Díaz, Opez Miranda et al., Effect of calcifediol treatment and best available therapy versus best available therapy on intensive care unit admission and mortality among patients hospitalized for COVID-19: A pilot randomized clinical study, J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol
Chow, Shao, Wang, Sample size calculations in clinical research
Daneshkhah, Agrawal, Eshein, Subramanian, Roy et al., Evidence for possible association of vitamin D status with cytokine storm and unregulated inflammation in COVID-19 patients, Aging Clin Exp Res, doi:10.1007/s40520-020-01677-y
Darling, Blackbourn, Ahmadi, Lanham-New, Sa, Very high prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency in 6433 UK South Asian adults: analysis of the UK Biobank Cohort, Br J Nutr, doi:10.1017/S0007114520002779
Grant, Lahore, Mcdonnell, Baggerly, French et al., Evidence that vitamin D supplementation could reduce risk of influenza and COVID-19 infections and deaths, Nutrients
Harris, Vitamin D and African Americans, J Nutr
Hastie, Mackay, Ho, Celis-Morales, Katikireddi et al., Vitamin D concentrations and COVID-19 infection in UK Biobank, Diabetes Metab Syndr
Holick, Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease, Am J Clin Nutr
Holick, The vitamin D deficiency pandemic: approaches for diagnosis, treatment and prevention, Rev Endocr Metab Disord
Katz, Yue, Xue, Dental diseases are associated with increased odds ratio for coronavirus disease 19, Oral Dis, doi:10.1111/odi.13653
Lansiaux, Pp, Picard, Forget, Covid-19 and vit-d: disease mortality negatively correlates with sunlight exposure, Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol
Mandal, Baktash, Hosack, Missouris, Vitamin D status and COVID-19 in older adults, Aging Clin Exp Res
Margulies, Kurian, Elliott, Han, Vitamin D deficiency in patients with intestinal malabsorption syndromesÀthink in and outside the gut, J Dig Dis
Martineau, Jolliffe, Hooper, Greenberg, Aloia et al., Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data, BMJ
Meltzer, Best, Zhang, Vokes, Arora et al., Association of vitamin D status and other clinical characteristics with COVID-19 test results, JAMA Netw Open
Meng, Hovey, Wactawski-Wende, Andrews, Lamonte et al., Intraindividual variation in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D measures 5 years apart among postmenopausal women, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev
Mitchell, Vitamin-D and COVID-19: do deficient risk a poorer outcome, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol
Mohan, Cherian, Sharma, Exploring links between vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19, PLoS Pathog
Ratnesar-Shumate, Williams, Green, Krause, Holland et al., Simulated sunlight rapidly inactivates SARS-CoV-2 on surfaces, J Infect Dis
Robertsen, Grimnes, Melbye, Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and symptoms of respiratory tract infection in a Norwegian population: the Tromsø Study, Public Health Nutr
Roy, Matson, Herlekar, Response to 'vitamin D concentrations and COVID-19 infection in UK Biobank, Diabetes Metab Syndr
Sabbah, Tsakos, Sheiham, Watt, The role of health-related behaviors in the socioeconomic disparities in oral health, Soc Sci Med
Singh, Gupta, Ghosh, Misra, Diabetes in COVID-19: prevalence, pathophysiology, prognosis and practical considerations, Diabetes Metab Syndr
Stokes, Zambrano, Anderson, Marder, Raz et al., Coronavirus disease 2019 case surveillance -United States, January 22ÀMay 30, 2020, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
Uwitonze, Murererehe, Ineza, Harelimana, Nsabimana et al., Effects of vitamin D status on oral health, J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol
Yancy, COVID-19 and African Americans, JAMA
Yılmaz, Şen, Is vitamin D deficiency a risk factor for COVID-19 in children?, Pediatr Pulmonol
Zabetakis, Lordan, Norton, Tsoupras, COVID-19: the inflammation link and the role of nutrition in potential mitigation, Nutrients
Zittermann, Pilz, Hoffmann, Vitamin D and airway infections: a European perspective, Eur J Med Res
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop