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Strong correlation between prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency and population mortality rate from COVID-19 in Europe

Pugach et al., Wiener klinische Wochenschrift, doi:10.1007/s00508-021-01833-y
Mar 2021  
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Analysis of COVID-19 in European countries, finding a correlation between the prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency and the mortality rate.
Pugach et al., 15 Mar 2021, Germany, peer-reviewed, 2 authors, study period 11 May, 2020 - 4 August, 2020. Contact:,
This PaperVitamin DAll
Strong correlation between prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency and population mortality rate from COVID-19 in Europe
M.D. ( ) • Isaac Z Pugach, M.D Sofya Pugach
Wiener klinische Wochenschrift, doi:10.1007/s00508-021-01833-y
Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a very wide range of disease severity: from completely asymptomatic to fatal, and the reasons for that are not well understood; however, there are some data that show vitamin D may have a protective effect. Methods To retrieve the vitamin D levels data, the authors analyzed the vitamin D European population data compiled by 2019 European Calcified Tissue Society (ECTS) statement on vitamin D status published in the European Journal of Endocrinology. For the data set to be used for analysis, only recently published data that included general adult population of both genders aged 40-65 years or wider and must have included the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. Results There were data sets from 10 countries that fitted the criteria and were analyzed. Severe vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH)D less than 25 nmol/L (10 ng/dL). Pearson correlation analysis between death rate per million of population from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency showed a strong correlation with r = 0.79, p = 0.007. Over time, correlation strengthened, and r coefficient asymptotically increased. After adjusting for countries' age structure and per capita health expenditures, multiple linear regression analysis showed that higher prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency is associated with in-Isaac Pugach acts as corresponding author before and during publication. After publication, please direct all queries to Sofya Pugach as corresponding author.
Conflict of interest I. Z. Pugach and S. Pugach declare they have no competing interests.
Grantwb, Mcdonnellsl, Evidencethatvitamin D supplementation could reduce risk of Influenza and COVID-19 infections and deaths, Nutrients
Gunville, Mourani, Ginde, The role of Vitamin D in prevention and treatment of infection, Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets
Lips, Cashman, Lamberg-Allardt, Current vitamin D status in European and Middle East countries and strategies to prevent vitamin D deficiency: a position statement of the European Calcified Tissue Society, Eur J Endocrinol
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