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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 76% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Sulli et al.  Prophylaxis Does vitamin D reduce COVID-19 infections? Retrospective 130 patients in Italy Fewer cases with vitamin D (p=0.00016) c19early.org Sulli et al., Nutrients, February 2021 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Vitamin D and Lung Outcomes in Elderly COVID-19 Patients

Sulli et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13030717
Feb 2021  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,200+ studies for 70+ treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 65 elderly COVID-19 patients and 65 matched controls, showing lower vitamin D levels associated with more severe lung involvement, longer disease duration, and higher mortality. Vitamin D supplementation was less common in the COVID-19 group compared to the control group.
This is the 22nd of 120 COVID-19 controlled studies for vitamin D, which collectively show efficacy with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 248 sextillion).
29 studies are RCTs, which show efficacy with p=0.0000024.
risk of case, 75.6% lower, OR 0.24, p < 0.001, treatment 22 of 65 (33.8%) cases, 44 of 65 (67.7%) controls, NNT 3.0, case control OR, vitamin D supplementation.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Sulli et al., 24 Feb 2021, retrospective, Italy, peer-reviewed, 10 authors, dosage not specified.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Vitamin D and Lung Outcomes in Elderly COVID-19 Patients
Alberto Sulli, Emanuele Gotelli, Andrea Casabella, Sabrina Paolino, Carmen Pizzorni, Elisa Alessandri, Marco Grosso, Diego Ferone, Vanessa Smith, Maurizio Cutolo
Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13030717
Background and aim: Vitamin D deficiency is frequently reported in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this study was to correlate the 25OH-Vitamin D serum concentrations with clinical parameters of lung involvement, in elderly patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: Sixty-five consecutive COVID-19 patients (mean age 76 ± 13 years) and sixtyfive sex-and age-matched control subjects (CNT) were analyzed. The following clinical parameters, including comorbidities, were collected at admission: type of pulmonary involvement, respiratory parameters (PaO 2 , SO 2 , PaCO 2 , PaO 2 /FiO 2 ), laboratory parameters (including 25OH-vitamin D, D-dimer, C-reactive protein). Results: Significantly lower vitamin D serum levels were found in COVID-19 patients than in CNT (median 7.9 vs. 16.3 ng/mL, p = 0.001). Interestingly, a statistically significant positive correlation was observed between vitamin D serum levels and PaO 2 (p = 0.03), SO 2 (p = 0.05), PaO 2 /FiO 2 (p = 0.02), while a statistically significant negative correlation was found between vitamin D serum levels and D-dimer (p = 0.04), C-reactive protein (p = 0.04) and percentage of O 2 in a venturi mask (p = 0.04). A negative correlation was also observed between vitamin D serum levels and severity of radiologic pulmonary involvement, evaluated by computed tomography: in particular, vitamin D was found significantly lower in COVID-19 patients with either multiple lung consolidations (p = 0.0001) or diffuse/severe interstitial lung involvement than in those with mild involvement (p = 0.05). Finally, significantly lower vitamin D serum levels were found in the elderly COVID-19 patients who died during hospitalization, compared to those who survived (median 3.0 vs. 8.4 ng/mL, p = 0.046). Conclusions: This study confirms that 25OH-vitamin D serum deficiency is associated with more severe lung involvement, longer disease duration and risk of death, in elderly COVID-19 patients. The detection of low vitamin D levels also in younger COVID-19 patients with less comorbidities further suggests vitamin D deficiency as crucial risk factor at any age.
Conflicts of Interest: All Authors declare no conflict of interest concerning this manuscript.
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Interestingly, a statistically significant positive correlation was ' 'observed between vitamin D serum levels and PaO2 (p = 0.03), SO2 (p = 0.05), PaO2/FiO2 (p = ' '0.02), while a statistically significant negative correlation was found between vitamin D ' 'serum levels and D-dimer (p = 0.04), C-reactive protein (p = 0.04) and percentage of O2 in a ' 'venturi mask (p = 0.04). A negative correlation was also observed between vitamin D serum ' 'levels and severity of radiologic pulmonary involvement, evaluated by computed tomography: in ' 'particular, vitamin D was found significantly lower in COVID-19 patients with either multiple ' 'lung consolidations (p = 0.0001) or diffuse/severe interstitial lung involvement than in ' 'those with mild involvement (p = 0.05). Finally, significantly lower vitamin D serum levels ' 'were found in the elderly COVID-19 patients who died during hospitalization, compared to ' 'those who survived (median 3.0 vs. 8.4 ng/mL, p = 0.046). Conclusions: This study confirms ' 'that 25OH-vitamin D serum deficiency is associated with more severe lung involvement, longer ' 'disease duration and risk of death, in elderly COVID-19 patients. 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