Bioactive Polyphenolic Compounds Showing Strong Antiviral Activities against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2
Kandeil et al.
, Bioactive Polyphenolic Compounds Showing Strong Antiviral Activities against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome..
, Pathogens, doi:10.3390/pathogens10060758 (In Vitro)
Kandeil et al., 15 Jun 2021, peer-reviewed, 11 authors.
In Vitro studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
Bioactive Polyphenolic Compounds Showing Strong Antiviral
Activities against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
Ahmed Kandeil 1,† , Ahmed Mostafa 1,† , Omnia Kutkat 1 , Yassmin Moatasim 1 , Ahmed A. Al-Karmalawy 2 ,
Adel A. Rashad 3 , Ahmed E. Kayed 1 , Azza E. Kayed 4 , Rabeh El-Shesheny 1 , Ghazi Kayali 5,6, *
and Mohamed A. Ali 1, *
Citation: Kandeil, A.; Mostafa, A.;
Kutkat, O.; Moatasim, Y.;
Center of Scientific Excellence for Influenza Viruses, National Research Centre, Giza 12622, Egypt;
Ahmed.Kandeil@human-link.org (A.K.); firstname.lastname@example.org (A.M.);
Omnia.Abdelaziz@human-link.org (O.K.); Yasmin.Moatasim@human-link.org (Y.M.);
Ahmed.Elsayed@human-link.org (A.E.K.); email@example.com (R.E.-S.)
Department of Pharmaceutical Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Horus University-Egypt,
New Damietta 34518, Egypt; firstname.lastname@example.org
Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Drexel University College of Medicine,
Philadelphia, PA 19102, USA; email@example.com
Radiation Biology Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 13759, Egypt; firstname.lastname@example.org
Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental Sciences, University of Texas,
Houston, TX 77030, USA
Human Link, Jewellery & Gemplex, Dubai 48800, United Arab Emirates
Correspondence: email@example.com (G.K.); firstname.lastname@example.org (M.A.A.)
Equally contributed as first author.
Al-Karmalawy, A.A.; Rashad, A.A.;
Kayed, A.E.; Kayed, A.E.;
El-Shesheny, R.; Kayali, G.; et al.
Bioactive Polyphenolic Compounds
Showing Strong Antiviral Activities
against Severe Acute Respiratory
Syndrome Coronavirus 2. Pathogens
2021, 10, 758. https://doi.org/
Academic Editors: David J. Allen and
Received: 24 March 2021
Accepted: 10 June 2021
Published: 15 June 2021
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral
Abstract: Until now, there has been no direct evidence of the effectiveness of repurposed FDAapproved drugs against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections.
Although curcumin, hesperidin, and quercetin have broad spectra of pharmacological properties,
their antiviral activities against SARS-CoV-2 remain unclear. Our study aimed to assess the in vitro
antiviral activities of curcumin, hesperidin, and quercetin against SARS-CoV-2 compared to hydroxychloroquine and determine their mode of action. In Vero E6 cells, these compounds significantly
inhibited virus replication, mainly as virucidal agents primarily indicating their potential activity at
the early stage of viral infection. To investigate the mechanism of action of the tested compounds,
molecular docking studies were carried out against both SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and main protease
(Mpro) receptors. Collectively, the obtained in silico and in vitro findings suggest that the compounds could be promising SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors. We recommend further preclinical and
clinical studies on the studied compounds to find a potential therapeutic targeting COVID-19 in the
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; antiviral; curcumin; hesperidin; quercetin; molecular docking
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