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Low Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (Vitamin D) Level Is Associated With Susceptibility to COVID-19, Severity, and Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Akbar et al., Front. Nutr. 8:660420, doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.660420
Mar 2021  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 9 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,200+ studies for 70+ treatments. c19early.org
Systematic review and meta analysis showing that low vitamin D levels was associated with COVID-19 cases, severity, and mortality.
15 meta analyses show significant improvements with vitamin D treatment for mortality1-10, mechanical ventilation1,6,7,11,12, ICU admission1,3,6,7,10-14, hospitalization5, severity2,4,6,15, and cases8,14,15.
Currently there are 120 vitamin D treatment for COVID-19 studies, showing 36% lower mortality [28‑43%], 16% lower ventilation [-7‑34%], 46% lower ICU admission [28‑60%], 19% lower hospitalization [9‑29%], and 17% fewer cases [9‑24%].
Akbar et al., 29 Mar 2021, peer-reviewed, 4 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Low Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (Vitamin D) Level Is Associated With Susceptibility to COVID-19, Severity, and Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Mohammad Rizki Akbar, Arief Wibowo, Raymond Pranata, Budi Setiabudiawan
Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.660420
Background: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess whether low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) level is associated with susceptibility to COVID-19, severity, and mortality related to COVID-19. Methods: Systematic literature searches of PubMed, Scopus, and Embase database up until 9 December 2020. We include published observational prospective and retrospective studies with information on 25-OHD that reported main/secondary outcome. Low serum 25-OHD refers to participants with serum 25-OHD level below a cut-off point ranging from 20 to 30 ng/mL. Other cut-off values were excluded to reduce heterogeneity. The main outcome was mortality defined as non-survivor/death. The secondary outcome was susceptibility and severe COVID-19. Results: There were 14 studies comprising of 999,179 participants. Low serum 25-OHD was associated with higher rate of COVID-19 infection compared to the control group (OR = 2.71 [1.72, 4.29], p < 0.001; I 2 : 92.6%). Higher rate of severe COVID-19 was observed in patients with low serum 25-OHD (OR = 1.90 [1.24, 2.93], p = 0.003; I 2 : 55.3%), with a sensitivity of 83%, specificity of 39%, PLR of 1.4, NLR of 0.43, and DOR of 3. Low serum 25-OHD was associated with higher mortality (OR = 3.08 [1.35, 7 .00], p = 0.011; I 2 : 80.3%), with a sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 35%, PLR of 1.3, NLR of 0.44, and DOR of 3. Meta-regression analysis showed that the association between low serum 25-OHD and mortality was affected by male gender (OR = 1.22 [1.08, 1.39], p = 0.002), diabetes (OR = 0.88 [0.79, 0.98], p = 0.019). Conclusion: Low serum 25-OHD level was associated with COVID-19 infection, severe presentation, and mortality.
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS MA: conceptualization, investigation, writing -original draft, writing -review and editing, and supervision. AW: data curation, investigation, and writing -original draft. RP: conceptualization, methodology, software, data curation, formal analysis, statistical analysis, investigation, validation, and writing -original draft. BS: investigation, and writing -review and editing. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Copyright © 2021 Akbar, Wibowo, Pranata and Setiabudiawan. This is an openaccess article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
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Nutr.', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2021, 3, 29]]}}
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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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