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Age differential CD13 and interferon expression in airway epithelia affect SARS-CoV-2 infection - effects of vitamin D

Sposito et al., Mucosal Immunology, doi:10.1016/j.mucimm.2023.08.002
Aug 2023  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments.
In Vitro study showing that vitamin D reduced SARS-CoV-2 replication in adult nasal epithelial cells via increased type I interferon expression. Administration of vitamin D by systemic supplementation or direct nasal delivery may be beneficial for COVID-19. Results were age-dependent, with lower viral replication and treatment effect in pediatric epithelial cells.
Vitamin D has been identified by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as having sufficient evidence for a causal relationship between intake and optimal immune system function EFSA, EFSA (B), Galmés, Galmés (B). Vitamin D inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro Campolina-Silva, Pickard, mitigates lung inflammation, damage, and lethality in mice with an MHV-3 model for β-CoV respiratory infections Campolina-Silva, Pickard, reduces SARS-CoV-2 replication in nasal epithelial cells via increased type I interferon expression Sposito, downregulates proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α in SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-stimulated cells Alcalá-Santiago, attenuates nucleocapsid protein-induced hyperinflammation by inactivating the NLRP3 inflammasome through the VDR-BRCC3 signaling pathway Chen, may be neuroprotective by protecting the blood-brain barrier, reducing neuroinflammation, and via immunomodulatory effects Gotelli, minimizes platelet aggregation mediated by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein via inhibiting integrin αIIbβ3 outside-in signaling Wang, and improves regulatory immune cell levels and control of proinflammatory cytokines in severe COVID-19 Saheb Sharif-Askari. Symptomatic COVID-19 is associated with a lower frequency of natural killer (NK) cells and vitamin D has been shown to improve NK cell activity Graydon, Oh.
Sposito et al., 11 Aug 2023, peer-reviewed, 10 authors.
In Vitro studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Journal Pre-proofs Article Age differential CD13 and interferon expression in airway epithelia affect SARS-CoV-2 infection -effects of vitamin D
Francesca Sposito, Shaun H Pennington, Christopher A W David, Jack Duggan, Sarah Northey, Giancarlo Biagini, J Neill, Amandine Liptrott, Paul S Charras, Christian M Mcnamara, Hedrich, Mucosal Immunology, Neill J Liptrott, Amandine Charras, Paul S Mcnamara, Christian M Hedrich
This is a PDF file of an article that has undergone enhancements after acceptance, such as the addition of a cover page and metadata, and formatting for readability, but it is not yet the definitive version of record. This version will undergo additional copyediting, typesetting and review before it is published in its final form, but we are providing this version to give early visibility of the article. Please note that, during the production process, errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.
CONTRIBUTORS CMH, PSM and FS designed the study. FS performed most experiments, including cell culture, transfections, luciferase experiments, protein Co-IPs, Western blots, ChIP, PCRs, and analysed data. SN performed the NanoString experiments. SHP, CAWD, JD, GB, and NJL performed the SARS-CoV-2 infections. AC contributed to the gene expression and DNA methylation data analysis. FS, CMH, and PSM wrote the manuscript. All authors read, edited, and approved the final version of the manuscript. DECLARATION OF COMPETING INTERESTS The authors have no competing interests to declare. AKNOWLEDGMENTS
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