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All Studies   Meta Analysis   Recent:  
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ ICU admission -0% Improvement Relative Risk Hospitalization 11% Severe case -20% Case 0% Vitamin D  Brunvoll et al.  Prophylaxis  DB RCT Is prophylaxis with vitamin D + cod liver oil beneficial for COVID-19? Double-blind RCT 34,601 patients in Norway (November 2020 - June 2021) Higher severe cases with vitamin D + cod liver oil (not stat. sig., p=0.17) Very low dose vitamin D, relatively high D levels for both groups Brunvoll et al., BMJ, September 2022 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Prevention of covid-19 and other acute respiratory infections with cod liver oil supplementation, a low dose vitamin D supplement: quadruple blinded, randomised placebo controlled trial

Sep 2022  
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RCT 17,278 low-risk patients (zero mortality) treated with 5mL/day cod liver oil (~400IU vitamin D) and 17,323 placebo patients in Norway with, showing no significant differences with treatment. The placebo group had higher vitamin D at baseline, and both groups had comparable vitamin D during treatment (74 vs. 63 nmol/L). 23% of control patients took vitamin D supplements and 62% consumed fatty fish (typically a good source of vitamin D). Adherence was low (<70% for "strict" compliance, which only required >0.5L consumed, or treatment for > "2-3" months).
This is the 22nd of 27 COVID-19 RCTs for vitamin D, which collectively show efficacy with p=0.00002.
This is the 95th of 115 COVID-19 controlled studies for vitamin D, which collectively show efficacy with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 30 sextillion).
risk of ICU admission, 0.3% higher, RR 1.00, p = 1.00, treatment 4 of 17,278 (0.0%), control 4 of 17,323 (0.0%).
risk of hospitalization, 10.9% lower, RR 0.89, p = 1.00, treatment 8 of 17,278 (0.0%), control 9 of 17,323 (0.1%), NNT 17692.
risk of severe case, 20.0% higher, RR 1.20, p = 0.17, treatment 121 of 17,278 (0.7%), control 101 of 17,323 (0.6%).
risk of case, no change, RR 1.00, p = 0.98, treatment 227 of 17,278 (1.3%), control 228 of 17,323 (1.3%), NNT 42377.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Brunvoll et al., 7 Sep 2022, Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial, placebo-controlled, Norway, peer-reviewed, mean age 44.9, 15 authors, study period 10 November, 2020 - 2 June, 2021, dosage 400IU daily, this trial uses multiple treatments in the treatment arm (combined with cod liver oil) - results of individual treatments may vary, trial NCT04609423 (history).
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This PaperVitamin DAll
Prevention of covid-19 and other acute respiratory infections with cod liver oil supplementation, a low dose vitamin D supplement: quadruple blinded, randomised placebo controlled trial
Sonja H Brunvoll, Anders B Nygaard, Merete Ellingjord-Dale, Petter Holland, Mette Stausland Istre, Karl Trygve Kalleberg, Camilla L Søraas, Kirsten B Holven, Stine M Ulven, Anette Hjartåker, Trond Haider, Fridtjof Lund-Johansen, John Arne Dahl, Haakon E Meyer, Arne Søraas
BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj-2022-071245
Objective To determine if daily supplementation with cod liver oil, a low dose vitamin D supplement, in winter, prevents SARS-CoV-2 infection, serious covid-19, or other acute respiratory infections in adults in Norway.
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Bolland, Avenell, Grey, Vitamin D and acute respiratory infection: secondary analysis of a previous randomised controlled trial and updated metaanalyses, medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.02.03.22270409
Butler-Laporte, Nakanishi, Mooser, Vitamin D and COVID-19 susceptibility and severity in the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative: A Mendelian randomization study, PLoS Med, doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1003605
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Deschasaux-Tanguy, Srour, Bourhis, Nutritional risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection: a prospective study within the NutriNet-Santé cohort, BMC Med, doi:10.1186/s12916-021-02168-1
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Holt, Talaei, Greenig, Risk factors for developing COVID-19: a population-based longitudinal study (COVIDENCE UK), Thorax, doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2021-217487
Holter, Pischke, De Boer, Systemic complement activation is associated with respiratory failure in COVID-19 hospitalized patients, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, doi:10.1073/pnas.2010540117
Jiang, Li, Wang, Effect of marine-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on major eicosanoids: a systematic review and meta-analysis from 18 randomized controlled trials, PLoS One, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147351
Jolliffe, Cajr, Sluyter, Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis of aggregate data from randomised controlled trials, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(21)00051-6on15
Jolliffe, Holt, Greenig, Vitamin D supplements for prevention of Covid-19 or other acute respiratory infections: a phase 3 randomized controlled trial (CORONAVIT), medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.03.22.22271707
Kaya, Pamukçu, Yakar, The role of vitamin D deficiency on COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies, Epidemiol Health, doi:10.4178/epih.e2021074
Kiecolt-Glaser, Belury, Andridge, Malarkey, Hwang et al., Omega-3 supplementation lowers inflammation in healthy middle-aged and older adults: a randomized controlled trial, Brain Behav Immun, doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2012.05.011
Ma, Zhou, Heianza, Qi, Habitual use of vitamin D supplements and risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection: a prospective study in UK Biobank, Am J Clin Nutr, doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqaa381
Mai, Langhammer, Chen, Cajr, Cod liver oil intake and incidence of asthma in Norwegian adults--the HUNT study, Thorax, doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2012-202061
Manson, Brannon, Rosen, Taylor, Vitamin D deficiency -is there really a pandemic?, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMp1608005
Martineau, Cates, Urashima, Vitamin D for the management of asthma, Cochrane Database Syst Rev, doi:10.1002/14651858.CD011511.pub2
Oscanoa, Amado, Vidal, Laird, Ghashut et al., The relationship between the severity and mortality of SARS-CoV-2 infection and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration -a metaanalysis, Adv Respir Med, doi:10.5603/ARM.a2021.0037
Pham, Rahman, Majidi, Waterhouse, Neale, Acute respiratory tract infection and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Int J Environ Res Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph16173020
Raposo, Fondell, Ström, Intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, zinc and polyunsaturated fatty acids and upper respiratory tract infection-a prospective cohort study, Eur J Clin Nutr, doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.261
Story, Essential sufficiency of zinc, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D and magnesium for prevention and treatment of COVID-19, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases and cancer, Biochimie, doi:10.1016/j.biochi.2021.05.013
Talaei, Faustini, Holt, Determinants of pre-vaccination antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2: a population-based longitudinal study (COVIDENCE UK), BMC Med, doi:10.1186/s12916-022-02286-4
Villasis-Keever, López-Alarcón, Miranda-Novales, Efficacy and safety of vitamin D supplementation to prevent COVID-19 in frontline healthcare workers. a randomized clinical trial, Arch Med Res, doi:10.1016/j.arcmed.2022.04.003
Vlieg-Boerstra, De, Meyer, Nutrient supplementation for prevention of viral respiratory tract infections in healthy subjects: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Allergy, doi:10.1111/all.15136
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Wise, Covid-19: Evidence is lacking to support vitamin D's role in treatment and prevention, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.m4912
Zárate, Jaber-Vazdekis, Tejera, Pérez, Rodríguez, Significance of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human health, Clin Transl Med, doi:10.1186/s40169-017-0153-6
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