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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Hospitalization 67% Improvement Relative Risk Case 78% Vitamin D  Villasis-Keever et al.  Prophylaxis  DB RCT Is prophylaxis with vitamin D beneficial for COVID-19? Double-blind RCT 302 patients in Mexico (July - December 2020) Fewer cases with vitamin D (p=0.0012) Villasis-Keever et al., Archives of Me.., Apr 2022 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Efficacy and Safety of Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent COVID-19 in Frontline Healthcare Workers. A Randomized Clinical Trial

Villasis-Keever et al., Archives of Medical Research, doi:10.1016/j.arcmed.2022.04.003
Apr 2022  
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RCT 321 healthcare workers in Mexico, showing significantly lower SARS-CoV-2 infection with vitamin D prophylaxis. 4,000IU daily for 30 days.
In comparison to Jolliffe, this study used a higher dose, the participants had much higher exposure to SARS-CoV-2 patients, and the study was prior to vaccination. In Jolliffe, 89% of participants had received a vaccine dose by the end of the study period, and the period overlapped with increasing solar UVB.
For more discussion see
This is the 13th of 28 COVID-19 RCTs for vitamin D, which collectively show efficacy with p=0.0000081.
This is the 76th of 116 COVID-19 controlled studies for vitamin D, which collectively show efficacy with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 38 sextillion).
risk of hospitalization, 66.5% lower, RR 0.33, p = 1.00, treatment 0 of 150 (0.0%), control 1 of 152 (0.7%), NNT 152, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm), ITT.
risk of case, 78.0% lower, RR 0.22, p = 0.001, treatment 7 of 150 (4.7%), control 26 of 152 (17.1%), NNT 8.0, adjusted per study, multivariable, Table 3.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Villasis-Keever et al., 18 Apr 2022, Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial, placebo-controlled, Mexico, peer-reviewed, 16 authors, study period 15 July, 2020 - 30 December, 2020, dosage 4,000IU daily.
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This PaperVitamin DAll
Efficacy and Safety of Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent COVID-19 in Frontline Healthcare Workers. A Randomized Clinical Trial
Miguel A Villasis-Keever, Mardia G López-Alarcón, Guadalupe Miranda-Novales, Jessie N Zurita-Cruz, Aly S Barrada-Vázquez, Joaquín González-Ibarra, Monserrat Martínez-Reyes, Concepción Grajales-Muñiz, Clara E Santacruz-Tinoco, Bernardo Martínez-Miguel, Jorge Maldonado-Hernández, Yazmín Cifuentes-González, Miguel Klünder-Klünder, Juan Garduño-Espinosa, Briseida López-Martínez, Israel Parra-Ortega
Archives of Medical Research, doi:10.1016/j.arcmed.2022.04.003
This is a PDF file of an article that has undergone enhancements after acceptance, such as the addition of a cover page and metadata, and formatting for readability, but it is not yet the definitive version of record. This version will undergo additional copyediting, typesetting and review before it is published in its final form, but we are providing this version to give early visibility of the article. Please note that, during the production process, errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.
Conflict of Interest Mardia G López-Alarcón, is the Editor-in-Chief of Archives of Medical Research. All other authors do not have any Conflict of Interest. Arch Med Res 22-00242
Abbott, ARCHITECT SARS-CoV-2 IgG instructions for use
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