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Nutritional deficiencies that may predispose to long COVID

Schloss et al., Inflammopharmacology, doi:10.1007/s10787-023-01183-3
Mar 2023  
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Vitamin C for COVID-19
6th treatment shown to reduce risk in September 2020
*, now with p = 0.000000028 from 72 studies, recognized in 12 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 79 treatments.
Review of 22 nutritional factors that have been linked to COVID-19 outcomes, the role of nutrients in COVID-19 infection, and the prevalence of multiple nutritional deficiencies in the population.
Reviews covering vitamin C for COVID-19 include1-11.
Review covers N-acetylcysteine, vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc.
Schloss et al., 15 Mar 2023, peer-reviewed, 1 author.
This PaperVitamin CAll
Nutritional deficiencies that may predispose to long COVID
John V Schloss
Inflammopharmacology, doi:10.1007/s10787-023-01183-3
Multiple nutritional deficiencies (MND) confound studies designed to assess the role of a single nutrient in contributing to the initiation and progression of disease states. Despite the perception of many healthcare practitioners, up to 25% of Americans are deficient in five-or-more essential nutrients. Stress associated with the COVID-19 pandemic further increases the prevalence of deficiency states. Viral infections compete for crucial nutrients with immune cells. Viral replication and proliferation of immunocompetent cells critical to the host response require these essential nutrients, including zinc. Clinical studies have linked levels of more than 22 different dietary components to the likelihood of COVID-19 infection and the severity of the disease. People at higher risk of infection due to MND are also more likely to have long-term sequelae, known as Long COVID.
Declarations Conflict of interest The author declares that he has no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise. Consent for publication Not applicable.
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