Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
Nitric Oxide
Peg.. Lambda

Home   COVID-19 treatment studies for Vitamin C  COVID-19 treatment studies for Vitamin C  C19 studies: Vitamin C  Vitamin C   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
Alkalinization Meta Lactoferrin Meta
Melatonin Meta
Bromhexine Meta Metformin Meta
Budesonide Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Cannabidiol Meta
Colchicine Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitric Oxide Meta
Ensovibep Meta Paxlovid Meta
Famotidine Meta Peg.. Lambda Meta
Favipiravir Meta Povidone-Iod.. Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Iota-carragee.. Meta
Ivermectin Meta Zinc Meta

Other Treatments Global Adoption
All Studies   Meta Analysis   Recent:  
Pleiotropic Functions of Nitric Oxide Produced by Ascorbate for the Prevention and Mitigation of COVID-19: A Revaluation of Pauling’s Vitamin C Therapy
Yamasaki et al., Microorganisms, doi:10.3390/microorganisms11020397 (Review)
Yamasaki et al., Pleiotropic Functions of Nitric Oxide Produced by Ascorbate for the Prevention and Mitigation of COVID-19: A.., Microorganisms, doi:10.3390/microorganisms11020397 (Review)
Feb 2023   Source   PDF  
  All Studies   Meta
Extensive review of vitamin C and nitric oxide focusing on the potential antiviral activity of vitamin C for SARS-CoV-2 via the production of nitric oxide. Authors note that vegetables are a major dietary source of nitrate, and that dietary vitamin C from fruits and vegetables can reduce nitrite to produce nitric oxide in the oral cavity when chewing foods.
Authors conclude that intermittent bursts of nitric oxide, for example as generated by the combination of nitrite and vitamin C, is a potential therapeutic treatment to prevent and mitigate COVID-19.
Authors also note that nitric oxide may be related to the observed lower than expected risks seen with asthma and smoking. Elevated levels of nitric oxide in the breath are used for diagnosing asthma, and smoking involves bursts of concentrated nitric oxide in cigarette smoke.
Yamasaki et al., 3 Feb 2023, Japan, peer-reviewed, 4 authors.
Contact: (corresponding author).
All Studies   Meta Analysis   Submit Updates or Corrections
This PaperVitamin CAll
Abstract: microorganisms Review Pleiotropic Functions of Nitric Oxide Produced by Ascorbate for the Prevention and Mitigation of COVID-19: A Revaluation of Pauling’s Vitamin C Therapy Hideo Yamasaki *, Hideyuki Imai , Atsuko Tanaka and Joji M. Otaki Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara 903-0213, Okinawa, Japan * Correspondence: Citation: Yamasaki, H.; Imai, H.; Tanaka, A.; Otaki, J.M. Pleiotropic Functions of Nitric Oxide Produced by Ascorbate for the Prevention and Mitigation of COVID-19: A Revaluation of Pauling’s Vitamin C Abstract: Linus Pauling, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, suggested that a high dose of vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) might work as a prevention or treatment for the common cold. Vitamin C therapy was tested in clinical trials, but clear evidence was not found at that time. Although Pauling’s proposal has been strongly criticized for a long time, vitamin C therapy has continued to be tested as a treatment for a variety of diseases, including coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19). The pathogen of COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, belongs to the β-coronavirus lineage, which includes human coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). This review intends to shed new light on vitamin C antiviral activity that may prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection through the chemical production of nitric oxide (NO). NO is a gaseous free radical that is largely produced by the enzyme NO synthase (NOS) in cells. NO produced by upper epidermal cells contributes to the inactivation of viruses and bacteria contained in air or aerosols. In addition to enzymatic production, NO can be generated by the chemical reduction of inorganic nitrite (NO2 − ), an alternative mechanism for NO production in living organisms. Dietary vitamin C, largely contained in fruits and vegetables, can reduce the nitrite in saliva to produce NO in the oral cavity when chewing foods. In the stomach, salivary nitrite can also be reduced to NO by vitamin C secreted from the epidermal cells of the stomach. The strong acidic pH of gastric juice facilitates the chemical reduction of salivary nitrite to produce NO. Vitamin C contributes in multiple ways to the host innate immune system as a first-line defense mechanism against pathogens. Highlighting chemical NO production by vitamin C, we suggest that controversies on the therapeutic effects of vitamin C in previous clinical trials may partly be due to less appreciation of the pleiotropic functions of vitamin C as a universal bioreductant. Therapy. Microorganisms 2023, 11, 397. microorganisms11020397 Keywords: antiviral activity; COVID-19; L-ascorbic acid: Linus Pauling; nitric oxide; nitrite; SARS-CoV-2; vitamin C Academic Editors: Samuele Sabbatini and Anna Gidari Received: 16 December 2022
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop