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Vitamin C—An Adjunctive Therapy for Respiratory Infection, Sepsis and COVID-19

Holford et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12123760
Dec 2020  
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Vitamin C for COVID-19
6th treatment shown to reduce risk in September 2020
 
*, now with p = 0.000000038 from 71 studies, recognized in 12 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 75 treatments. c19early.org
Review of vitamin C use for respiratory infections including COVID-19 and the mechanisms of action. Authors note that evidence to date indicates oral vitamin C (2–8 g/day) may reduce the incidence and duration of respiratory infections, and intravenous vitamin C (6–24 g/day) has been shown to reduce mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stays, and time on mechanical ventilation for severe respiratory infections. Authors conclude that given the favourable safety profile and low cost of vitamin C, and the frequency of vitamin C deficiency in respiratory infections, it may be worthwhile testing patients’ vitamin C status and treating them accordingly with intravenous administration within ICUs and oral administration in hospitalised COVID-19 patients.
Reviews covering vitamin C for COVID-19 include1-11.
Holford et al., 7 Dec 2020, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
This PaperVitamin CAll
Vitamin C—An Adjunctive Therapy for Respiratory Infection, Sepsis and COVID-19
Patrick Holford, Anitra C Carr, Thomas H Jovic, Stephen R Ali, Iain S Whitaker, Paul E Marik, A David Smith
Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12123760
There are limited proven therapies for COVID-19. Vitamin C's antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects make it a potential therapeutic candidate, both for the prevention and amelioration of COVID-19 infection, and as an adjunctive therapy in the critical care of COVID-19. This literature review focuses on vitamin C deficiency in respiratory infections, including COVID-19, and the mechanisms of action in infectious disease, including support of the stress response, its role in preventing and treating colds and pneumonia, and its role in treating sepsis and COVID-19. The evidence to date indicates that oral vitamin C (2-8 g/day) may reduce the incidence and duration of respiratory infections and intravenous vitamin C (6-24 g/day) has been shown to reduce mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stays, and time on mechanical ventilation for severe respiratory infections. Further trials are urgently warranted. Given the favourable safety profile and low cost of vitamin C, and the frequency of vitamin C deficiency in respiratory infections, it may be worthwhile testing patients' vitamin C status and treating them accordingly with intravenous administration within ICUs and oral administration in hospitalised persons with COVID-19.
Author Contributions: Conceptualisation, P.H.; writing-original draft preparation, P.H., T.H.J., S.R.A, I.S.W., A.C.C.; writing-review and editing, P.E.M., A.D.S.; visualisation, T.H.J., S.R.A. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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Given the favourable safety ' 'profile and low cost of vitamin C, and the frequency of vitamin C deficiency in respiratory ' 'infections, it may be worthwhile testing patients’ vitamin C status and treating them ' 'accordingly with intravenous administration within ICUs and oral administration in ' 'hospitalised persons with COVID-19.</jats:p>', 'DOI': '10.3390/nu12123760', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2020, 12, 7]], 'date-time': '2020-12-07T17:24:39Z', 'timestamp': 1607361879000}, 'page': '3760', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 113, 'title': 'Vitamin C—An Adjunctive Therapy for Respiratory Infection, Sepsis and COVID-19', 'prefix': '10.3390', 'volume': '12', 'author': [ {'given': 'Patrick', 'family': 'Holford', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': []}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5890-2977', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Anitra C.', 'family': 'Carr', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Thomas H.', 'family': 'Jovic', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Stephen R.', 'family': 'Ali', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Iain S.', 'family': 'Whitaker', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Paul E.', 'family': 'Marik', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'A. 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