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Bias against Vitamin C in Mainstream Medicine: Examples from Trials of Vitamin C for Infections

Hemilä et al., Life, doi:10.3390/life12010062
Jan 2022  
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Vitamin C for COVID-19
6th treatment shown to reduce risk in September 2020
 
*, now known with p = 0.000000087 from 70 studies, recognized in 11 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Analysis of bias against vitamin C for infections in major studies and editorials.
Reviews covering vitamin C for COVID-19 include Arora, Biancatelli, Feyaerts, Foshati, Hemilä, Hemilä (B), Holford, May, Schloss, Yamasaki.
Hemilä et al., 3 Jan 2022, peer-reviewed, 2 authors. Contact: harri.hemila@helsinki.fi (corresponding author), elizabeth.chalker@anu.edu.au.
This PaperVitamin CAll
Bias against Vitamin C in Mainstream Medicine: Examples from Trials of Vitamin C for Infections
Harri Hemilä, Elizabeth Chalker
Life, doi:10.3390/life12010062
Evidence has shown unambiguously that, in certain contexts, vitamin C is effective against the common cold. However, in mainstream medicine, the views on vitamin C and infections have been determined by eminence-based medicine rather than evidence-based medicine. The rejection of the demonstrated benefits of vitamin C is largely explained by three papers published in 1975-two published in JAMA and one in the American Journal of Medicine-all of which have been standard citations in textbooks of medicine and nutrition and in nutritional recommendations. Two of the papers were authored by Thomas Chalmers, an influential expert in clinical trials, and the third was authored by Paul Meier, a famous medical statistician. In this paper, we summarize several flaws in the three papers. In addition, we describe problems with two recent randomized trial reports published in JAMA which were presented in a way that misled readers. We also discuss shortcomings in three recent JAMA editorials on vitamin C. While most of our examples are from JAMA, it is not the only journal with apparent bias against vitamin C, but it illustrates the general views in mainstream medicine. We also consider potential explanations for the widespread bias against vitamin C.
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In ' 'addition, we describe problems with two recent randomized trial reports published in JAMA ' 'which were presented in a way that misled readers. We also discuss shortcomings in three ' 'recent JAMA editorials on vitamin C. While most of our examples are from JAMA, it is not the ' 'only journal with apparent bias against vitamin C, but it illustrates the general views in ' 'mainstream medicine. We also consider potential explanations for the widespread bias against ' 'vitamin C.</jats:p>', 'alternative-id': ['life12010062'], 'author': [ { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4710-307X', 'affiliation': [], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Hemilä', 'given': 'Harri', 'sequence': 'first'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Chalker', 'given': 'Elizabeth', 'sequence': 'additional'}], 'container-title': 'Life', 'container-title-short': 'Life', 'content-domain': {'crossmark-restriction': False, 'domain': []}, 'created': {'date-parts': [[2022, 1, 7]], 'date-time': '2022-01-07T06:14:02Z', 'timestamp': 1641536042000}, 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 1, 7]], 'date-time': '2022-01-07T06:55:41Z', 'timestamp': 1641538541000}, 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2023, 6, 7]], 'date-time': '2023-06-07T13:51:42Z', 'timestamp': 1686145902697}, 'is-referenced-by-count': 5, 'issue': '1', 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2022, 1, 3]]}, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '1', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2022, 1]]}}, 'language': 'en', 'license': [ { 'URL': 'https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/', 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 1, 3]], 'date-time': '2022-01-03T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1641168000000}}], 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://www.mdpi.com/2075-1729/12/1/62/pdf', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'member': '1968', 'original-title': [], 'page': '62', 'prefix': '10.3390', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2022, 1, 3]]}, 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2022, 1, 3]]}, 'publisher': 'MDPI AG', 'reference': [ {'DOI': '10.1073/pnas.68.11.2678', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref1'}, {'DOI': '10.1093/ajcn/24.11.1294', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref2'}, { 'author': 'Pauling', 'key': 'ref3', 'series-title': 'Vitamin C and the Common Cold', 'year': '1970'}, {'DOI': '10.1002/14651858.CD000980.pub4', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref4'}, { 'key': 'ref5', 'unstructured': 'Vitamin C for Preventing and Treating the Common ' 'Coldhttp://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila/CC'}, {'DOI': '10.1002/ebch.261', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref6'}, {'DOI': '10.1055/s-2007-972864', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref7'}, {'DOI': '10.1017/S0007114500002889', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref8'}, {'DOI': '10.1079/bjn19970201', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref9'}, {'DOI': '10.1007/s00228-018-2601-7', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref10'}, {'DOI': '10.1002/14651858.cd013134.pub2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref11'}, {'DOI': '10.3389/fimmu.2020.574029', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref12'}, {'DOI': '10.1155/2018/1837634', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref13'}, {'DOI': '10.1039/D0FO00421A', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref14'}, {'DOI': '10.1038/s41430-021-00993-4', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref15'}, {'DOI': '10.1007/s00228-019-02733-x', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref16'}, { 'key': 'ref17', 'unstructured': 'Vitamin C and the common cold in children: Severe flaws in the ' 'meta-analyses by Vorilhon et ' 'alhttps://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/333365'}, {'DOI': '10.1007/s00228-021-03150-9', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref18'}, {'DOI': '10.3389/fmed.2020.595988', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref19'}, {'DOI': '10.3389/fimmu.2021.659001', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref20'}, { 'key': 'ref21', 'unstructured': 'Shortcomings in the Vitamin C and Common Cold Meta-Analysis by Ran et ' 'alhttps://pubpeer.com/publications/077EAB95E9141BE6A455C30F0A688E'}, {'DOI': '10.1039/D0FO02189J', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref22'}, { 'key': 'ref23', 'unstructured': 'Assessment of Vitamin C Effects on Pneumonia and COVID-19 Using ' 'Mendelian Randomization: Analysis May Be Misleading. 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