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Melatonin interferes with COVID-19 at several distinct ROS-related steps

Camp et al., Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, doi:10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2021.111546
Jul 2021  
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Melatonin for COVID-19
10th treatment shown to reduce risk in December 2020
*, now known with p = 0.0000002 from 18 studies.
Lower risk for mortality, ventilation, and recovery.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Review discussing how melatonin may improve COVID-19 prognosis by acting to reduce oxygen deficiency and hypoxia, vitamin B12 deficiency, NO deficiency, oxidative stress, and sleep disturbance.
Reviews covering melatonin for COVID-19 include Alomari, Behl, Camp, Castle, Charaa, Cross, DiNicolantonio, Hosseinzadeh, Langen, Lempesis, Loh, Ramos, Reiter, Reiter (B), Shneider, Tan, Zhang.
Camp et al., 17 Jul 2021, peer-reviewed, 5 authors.
This PaperMelatoninAll
Melatonin interferes with COVID-19 at several distinct ROS-related steps
Olivia G Camp, David Bai, Damla C Gonullu, Neha Nayak, Husam M Abu-Soud
Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, doi:10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2021.111546
Recent studies have shown a correlation between COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and the distinct, exaggerated immune response titled "cytokine storm". This immune response leads to excessive production and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause clinical signs characteristic of COVID-19 such as decreased oxygen saturation, alteration of hemoglobin properties, decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, vasoconstriction, elevated cytokines, cardiac and/or renal injury, enhanced D-dimer, leukocytosis, and an increased neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio. Particularly, neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) is thought to be especially abundant and, as a result, contributes substantially to oxidative stress and the pathophysiology of COVID-19. Conversely, melatonin, a potent MPO inhibitor, has been noted for its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic, and neuroprotective actions. Melatonin has been proposed as a safe therapeutic agent for COVID-19 recently, having been given with a US Food and Drug Administration emergency authorized cocktail, REGEN-COV2, for management of COVID-19 progression. This review distinctly highlights both how the destructive interactions of HOCl with tetrapyrrole rings may contribute to oxygen deficiency and hypoxia, vitamin B12 deficiency, NO deficiency, increased oxidative stress, and sleep disturbance, as well as how melatonin acts to prevent these events, thereby improving COVID-19 prognosis.
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