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Melatonin may decrease risk for and aid treatment of COVID-19 and other RNA viral infections

DiNicolantonio et al., Open Heart, doi:10.1136/openhrt-2020-001568
Mar 2021  
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Melatonin for COVID-19
10th treatment shown to reduce risk in December 2020
*, now known with p = 0.0000002 from 18 studies.
Lower risk for mortality, ventilation, and recovery.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Review of melatonin for COVID-19 and the result of Ramlall et al., suggesting that vitamin D, zinc, and melatonin supplementation may have general utility for the prevention and treatment of RNA virus infections, such as COVID-19 and influenza.
Reviews covering melatonin for COVID-19 include Alomari, Behl, Camp, Castle, Charaa, Cross, DiNicolantonio, Hosseinzadeh, Langen, Lempesis, Loh, Ramos, Reiter, Reiter (B), Shneider, Tan, Zhang.
DiNicolantonio et al., 19 Mar 2021, peer-reviewed, 3 authors.
This PaperMelatoninAll
Melatonin may decrease risk for and aid treatment of COVID-19 and other RNA viral infections
Dr James J Dinicolantonio, Mark Mccarty, Jorge Barroso-Aranda
Open Heart, doi:10.1136/openhrt-2020-001568
A recent retrospective study has provided evidence that COVID-19 infection may be notably less common in those using supplemental melatonin. It is suggested that this phenomenon may reflect the fact that, via induction of silent information regulator 1 (Sirt1), melatonin can upregulate K63 polyubiquitination of the mitochondrial antiviral-signalling protein, thereby boosting virally mediated induction of type 1 interferons. Moreover, Sirt1 may enhance the antiviral efficacy of type 1 interferons by preventing hyperacetylation of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), enabling its retention in the nucleus, where it promotes transcription of interferon-inducible genes. This nuclear retention of HMGB1 may also be a mediator of the anti-inflammatory effect of melatonin therapy in COVID-19-complementing melatonin's suppression of nuclear factor kappa B activity and upregulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2. If these speculations are correct, a nutraceutical regimen including vitamin D, zinc and melatonin supplementation may have general utility for the prevention and treatment of RNA virus infections, such as COVID-19 and influenza.
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