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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 36% Improvement Relative Risk Metformin for COVID-19  Lukito et al.  META ANALYSIS Favors metformin Favors control

The Effect of Metformin Consumption on Mortality in Hospitalized COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Lukito et al., Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2020.11.006
Nov 2020  
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Meta analysis of 9 studies showing lower mortality with metformin use.
12 meta analyses show significant improvements with metformin for mortality Hariyanto, Kan, Kow, Li, Lukito, Ma, Oscanoa, Parveen, Petrelli, Schlesinger, Yang, hospitalization Li, progression Yang, and severity Petrelli, Schlesinger.
Currently there are 75 metformin for COVID-19 studies, showing 32% lower mortality [28‑37%], 27% lower ventilation [9‑42%], 16% lower ICU admission [5‑25%], 18% lower hospitalization [11‑24%], and 4% fewer cases [-6‑13%].
risk of death, 36.0% lower, OR 0.64, p = 0.03, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Lukito et al., 11 Nov 2020, peer-reviewed, 6 authors.
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This PaperMetforminAll
The Effect of Metformin Consumption on Mortality in Hospitalized COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Antonia Anna Lukito, Raymond Pranata, Joshua Henrina, Michael Anthonius Lim, Sherly Lawrensia, Ketut Suastika
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2020.11.006
Background and aims: Diabetes is one of the most common comorbidities, and it is associated with poorer outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 . Preliminary findings showed that mortality was reduced in those who consume metformin compared to those who did not, and given its low cost and widespread availability; metformin is an attractive and potential agent to mitigate excessive risk in diabetic populations. Methods: Several medical databases (Pubmed, EuropePMC, EBSCOhost, Proquest, Cochrane library) and two health-science preprint servers ( and Medrxiv) were systematically searched for relevant literature. Results: Nine studies with 10,233 subjects were included in the qualitative and quantitative synthesis. Meta-analysis showed that metformin is associated with lower mortality in pooled non-adjusted model (OR 0.45 [0.25, 0.81], p ¼ 0.008; I 2: 63.9%, p ¼ 0.026) and pooled adjusted model (OR 0.64 [0.43, 0.97], p ¼ 0.035; I 2 : 52.1%, p ¼ 0.064). Conclusion: The analysis showed that metformin consumption was associated with lower mortality. Randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm this finding.
Ethics approval and consent to participate Not Applicable. Consent for publication Not Applicable. Conflicts of interest The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Abbreviations ACE2 Angiotensin
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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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