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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 34% Improvement Relative Risk Severe case 35% Hospitalization 23% Metformin for COVID-19  Song et al.  META ANALYSIS Favors metformin Favors control

The Effect of Antihyperglycemic Medications on COVID-19: A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review from Observational Studies

Song et al., Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science, doi:10.1007/s43441-024-00633-6
Apr 2024  
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Metformin for COVID-19
3rd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 89 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Meta analysis of 56 studies showing lower mortality and hospitalization with metformin, GLP-1 receptor agonists, and SGLT-2 inhibitors in COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes, while insulin was associated with increased risks.
22 meta analyses show significant improvements with metformin for mortality Chen, Ganesh, Han, Hariyanto, Kan, Kow, Li, Lukito, Ma, Nassar, Nguyen, Oscanoa, Parveen, Petrelli, Poly, Scheen, Schlesinger, Song, Sun, Yang, Zhan, hospitalization Li, Song, progression Yang, and severity Petrelli, Schlesinger, Song.
Currently there are 89 metformin for COVID-19 studies, showing 34% lower mortality [29‑39%], 33% lower ventilation [17‑46%], 16% lower ICU admission [6‑25%], 18% lower hospitalization [11‑24%], and 5% fewer cases [-4‑13%].
risk of death, 34.0% lower, OR 0.66, p < 0.001, RR approximated with OR.
risk of severe case, 35.0% lower, OR 0.65, p = 0.002, RR approximated with OR.
risk of hospitalization, 23.0% lower, OR 0.77, p = 0.02, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Song et al., 29 Apr 2024, peer-reviewed, 5 authors.
This PaperMetforminAll
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The association between ' 'antidiabetic agents and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients with ' 'diabetes: a Bayesian network meta-analysis. Front Endocrinol. ' '2022;27(13):895458.', 'volume': '27', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.3389/fendo.2021.696087', 'author': 'Y Yang', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '696087', 'journal-title': 'Front Endocrinol', 'key': '633_CR86', 'unstructured': 'Yang Y, Cai Z, Zhang J. Insulin treatment may increase adverse outcomes ' 'in patients with covid-19 and diabetes: a systematic review and ' 'metaanalysis. Front Endocrinol. 2021;12:696087.', 'volume': '12', 'year': '2021'}, { 'author': 'T Han', 'first-page': '00167', 'issue': '21', 'journal-title': 'Arch Med Res', 'key': '633_CR87', 'unstructured': 'Han T, Ma S, Sun C, Zhang H, Qu G, Chen Y, et al. The association ' 'between anti-diabetic agents and clinical outcomes of covid-19 in ' 'patients with diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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