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Noninsulin‐based antihyperglycemic medications in patients with diabetes and COVID‐19: A systematic review and meta‐analysis

Nassar et al., Journal of Diabetes, doi:10.1111/1753-0407.13359
Jan 2023  
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Mortality 40% Improvement Relative Risk Mechanical ventilation/ICU 4% Metformin for COVID-19  Nassar et al.  META ANALYSIS c19early.org Favorsmetformin Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
Metformin for COVID-19
3rd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 91 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 77 treatments. c19early.org
Meta analysis of 26 studies showing lower mortality with metformin and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA), higher hospitalization and ICU admission with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i), and lower hospitalization with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) in COVID-19 patients with diabetes. No significant differences were found for sulfonylureas/meglitinides. The analysis aimed to evaluate the impact of different noninsulin antihyperglycemic medications on COVID-19 outcomes in patients with diabetes.
22 meta analyses show significant improvements with metformin for mortality1-21, hospitalization7,13, progression1, and severity8,9,13.
Currently there are 91 metformin for COVID-19 studies, showing 34% lower mortality [29‑39%], 33% lower ventilation [17‑46%], 17% lower ICU admission [6‑26%], 18% lower hospitalization [11‑23%], and 5% fewer cases [-4‑13%].
risk of death, 40.0% lower, RR 0.60, p < 0.001.
mechanical ventilation/ICU, 4.0% lower, RR 0.96, p = 0.86.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Nassar et al., 23 Jan 2023, China, peer-reviewed, 5 authors. Contact: zbloom@gmail.com.
This PaperMetforminAll
Noninsulin‐based antihyperglycemic medications in patients with diabetes and COVID‐19: A systematic review and meta‐analysis
Mahmoud Nassar, Hazem Abosheaishaa, Awadhesh Kumar Singh, Anoop Misra, Zachary Bloomgarden
Journal of Diabetes, doi:10.1111/1753-0407.13359
Background: Patients with diabetes are more likely to suffer COVID-19 complications. Using noninsulin antihyperglycemic medications (AGMs) during COVID-19 infection has proved challenging. In this study, we evaluate different noninsulin AGMs in patients with COVID-19. Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane on 24 January 2022. We used the following keywords (COVID-19) AND (diabetes mellitus) AND (antihyperglycemic agent). The inclusion criteria were studies reporting one or more of the outcomes. We excluded non-English articles, case reports, and literature reviews. Study outcomes were mortality, hospitalization, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Results: The use of metformin rather than other glucose-lowering medications was associated with statistically significant lower mortality (risk ratio [RR]: 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.47, 0.77, p < .001). Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) use was associated with statistically significantly higher hospitalization risk (RR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.23, 1.68, p < .001) and higher risk of ICU admissions and/or mechanical ventilation vs nonusers (RR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.48, p < .02). There was a statistically significant decrease in hospitalization for SGLT-2i users vs nonusers (RR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.84-0.95, p < .001). Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) use was associated with a statistically significant decrease in mortality (RR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.42, 073, p < 0.001), ICU admission, and/or mechanical
CONFLICT OF INTEREST There is no conflict of interest to declare. ETHICAL STATEMENT No human or animal studies were involved in this study. PATIENT AND PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT SUBSECTION Patients and the public were not involved in any way in this study. SUPPORTING INFORMATION Additional supporting information can be found online in the Supporting Information section at the end of this article.
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In ' 'this study, we evaluate different noninsulin AGMs in patients with ' 'COVID‐19.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Methods</jats:title><jats:p>We searched ' 'Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane on 24 January 2022. We used the following ' 'keywords (COVID‐19) AND (diabetes mellitus) AND (antihyperglycemic agent). The inclusion ' 'criteria were studies reporting one or more of the outcomes. We excluded non‐English ' 'articles, case reports, and literature reviews. Study outcomes were mortality, ' 'hospitalization, and intensive care unit (ICU) ' 'admission.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Results</jats:title><jats:p>The use of ' 'metformin rather than other glucose‐lowering medications was associated with statistically ' 'significant lower mortality (risk ratio [RR]: 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.47, 0.77, ' '<jats:italic>p</jats:italic>\xa0&lt;\u2009.001). Dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 inhibitor (DPP‐4i) ' 'use was associated with statistically significantly higher hospitalization risk (RR: 1.44, ' '95% CI: 1.23, 1.68, <jats:italic>p</jats:italic>\xa0&lt;\u2009.001) and higher risk of ICU ' 'admissions and/or mechanical ventilation vs nonusers (RR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.48, ' '<jats:italic>p</jats:italic>\xa0&lt;\u2009.02). There was a statistically significant ' 'decrease in hospitalization for SGLT‐2i users vs nonusers (RR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.84–0.95, ' '<jats:italic>p</jats:italic>\xa0&lt;\u2009.001). Glucagon‐like peptide‐1 receptor agonist ' '(GLP‐1RA) use was associated with a statistically significant decrease in mortality (RR: ' '0.56, 95% CI: 0.42, 073, <jats:italic>p</jats:italic>\xa0&lt;\u20090.001), ICU admission, ' 'and/or mechanical ventilation (RR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.69–0.89, <jats:italic>p</jats:italic>\xa0' '&lt;\u2009.001), and hospitalization (RR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.98, ' '<jats:italic>p</jats:italic>\xa0=\u2009' '.04).</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Conclusions</jats:title><jats:p>AGM use was ' 'not associated with increased mortality. However, metformin and GLP‐1RA use reduced mortality ' 'risk statistically significantly. 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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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