Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All molnupiravir studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchMolnupiravirMolnupiravir (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   All Outcomes    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 25% Improvement Relative Risk Progression 29% Molnupiravir  Park et al.  EARLY TREATMENT Is early treatment with molnupiravir beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 953,460 patients in South Korea (Aug 2022 - Mar 2023) Lower mortality (p<0.0001) and progression (p<0.0001) Park et al., Infection & Chemotherapy, Nov 2023 Favors molnupiravir Favors control

Effectiveness of Molnupiravir Treatment in Patients with COVID-19 in Korea: A Propensity Score Matched Study

Park et al., Infection & Chemotherapy, doi:10.3947/ic.2023.0087
Nov 2023  
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
PSM retrospective 190,692 COVID-19 patients treated with molnupiravir and 762,768 matched controls, showing lower mortality and combined severe/critical illness and mortality with treatment.
Confounding by treatment propensity. This study analyzes a population where only a fraction of eligible patients received the treatment. Patients receiving treatment may be more likely to follow other recommendations, more likely to receive additional care, and more likely to use additional treatments that are not tracked in the data (e.g., nasal/oral hygiene, (B), vitamin D (C), etc.) — either because the physician recommending molnupiravir also recommended them, or because the patient seeking out molnupiravir is more likely to be familiar with the efficacy of additional treatments and more likely to take the time to use them. Therefore, these kind of studies may overestimate the efficacy of treatments.
Concerns have been raised that the mutagenic mechanism of action may create dangerous variants or cause cancer Chamod, Hadj Hassine, Huntsman, Marikawa, Swanstrom, Waters, Zhou, Zibat. Multiple analyses have identified variants potentially created by molnupiravir Fountain-Jones, Kosakovsky Pond, Sanderson,
risk of death, 25.1% lower, OR 0.75, p < 0.001, RR approximated with OR.
risk of progression, 28.6% lower, OR 0.71, p < 0.001, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Park et al., 22 Nov 2023, retrospective, South Korea, peer-reviewed, 6 authors, study period 1 August, 2022 - 31 March, 2023. Contact:
This PaperMolnupiravirAll
Effectiveness of Molnupiravir Treatment in Patients with COVID-19 in Korea: A Propensity Score Matched Study
Hye Rim Park, Min-Gyu Yoo, Jong Mu Kim, Soon Jong Bae, Hyungmin Lee, PhD Jungyeon Kim
Infection & Chemotherapy, doi:10.3947/ic.2023.0087
Background: The MOVe-OUT (efficacy and safety of molnupiravir in non-hospitalized adult participants with ) trial reported that the administration of molnupiravir in unvaccinated patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) before the Omicron epidemic showed a preventive effect of 31% against hospitalization and death. However, studies on the preventive effect of molnupiravir against progression to severe disease and death in patients with COVID-19 during the Omicron epidemic are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the preventive effect of molnupiravir against severe/critical illness or death and death in Korean patients with COVID-19 who were vaccinated mostly during the Omicron epidemic. Materials and Methods: This study used large-scale retrospective cohort data to select patients with COVID-19 who were either treated or not treated with molnupiravir, between August 2022 and March 2023, at a ratio of 1 : 4 using the propensity score matching method. In total, 762,768 patients comprised the non-administered group, and 190,692 patients comprised the molnupiravir-administered group. The preventive effect of molnupiravir against severe/ critical illness or death and death was analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Results: The preventive effect of molnupiravir against severe/critical illness or death and death, represented by the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI), in the molnupiravir-administered and non-administered group was (OR: 0.714; CI: 0.667 -0.764) and (OR: 0.749; CI: 0.682 -0.823), respectively. As age increased, the preventive effect against severe/critical illness or death and death increased. The preventive effect against severe/critical illness or death at ≥60 years was (OR: 0.
Conflict of interest No conflict of interest. Author Contributions
Arbel, Sagy, Hoshen, Battat, Lavie et al., Nirmatrelvir use and severe Covid-19 outcomes during the omicron surge, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2204919
Bajema, Berry, Streja, Rajeevan, Li et al., Effectiveness of COVID-19 treatment with nirmatrelvir-ritonavir or molnupiravir among U.S. Veterans: Target trial emulation studies with one-month and six-month outcomes, Ann Intern Med, doi:10.7326/M22-3565
Bernal, Da Silva, Musungaie, Kovalchuk, Gonzalez et al., Williams-8/10 icjournal
Bestetti, Furlan-Daniel, Silva, Pharmacological Treatment of Patients with Mild to Moderate COVID-19: a comprehensive review, Int J Environ Res Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph18137212
Butler, Hobbs, Gbinigie, Rahman, Hayward et al., Molnupiravir plus usual care versus usual care alone as early treatment for adults with COVID-19 at increased risk of adverse outcomes (PANORAMIC): an openlabel, platform-adaptive randomised controlled trial, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(22)02597-1
Diaz, Brown, Du, Pedley, Assaid et al., Molnupiravir for oral treatment of Covid-19 in nonhospitalized patients, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2116044
Fiolet, Kherabi, Macdonald, Ghosn, Peiffer-Smadja, Comparing COVID-19 vaccines for their characteristics, efficacy and effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern: a narrative review, Clin Microbiol Infect, doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2021.10.005
Gandhi, Lynch, Rio, Mild or moderate Covid-19, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMcp2009249
Guan, Liang, Zhao, Liang, Chen et al., China Medical Treatment Expert Group for COVID-19. Comorbidity and its impact on 1590 patients with COVID-19 in China: a nationwide analysis, Eur Respir J, doi:10.1183/13993003.00547-2020
Hammond, Leister-Tebbe, Gardner, Abreu, Wisemandle et al., Oral nirmatrelvir for high-risk, nonhospitalized adults with Covid-19, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2118542
Hoertel, Boulware, Sánchez-Rico, Burgun, Limosin, Prevalence of contraindications to nirmatrelvir-ritonavir among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 at risk for progression to severe disease, JAMA Netw Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.42140
Ito, Piantham, Nishiura, Relative instantaneous reproduction number of Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant with respect to the Delta variant in Denmark, J Med Virol, doi:10.1002/jmv.27560
Kim, Yoo, Bae, Kim, Lee, Effectiveness of paxlovid, an oral antiviral drug, against the Omicron BA.5 variant in Korea: severe progression and death between July and November 2022, J Korean Med Sci, doi:10.3346/jkms.2023.38.e211
Lee, Hsieh, Ko, Molnupiravir-A novel oral anti-SARS-CoV-2 agent, Antibiotics, doi:10.3390/antibiotics10111294
Lv, Lv, Clinical characteristics and analysis of risk factors for disease progression of COVID-19: a retrospective Cohort Study, Int J Biol Sci, doi:10.7150/ijbs.50654
Najjar-Debbiny, Gronich, Weber, Khoury, Amar et al., Effectiveness of molnupiravir in highrisk patients: a propensity score matched analysis, Clin Infect Dis, doi:10.1093/cid/ciac781
Painter, Holman, Bush, Almazedi, Malik et al., Human safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of molnupiravir, a novel broad-spectrum oral antiviral agent with activity against SARS-CoV-2, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, doi:10.1128/AAC.02428-20
Paraskevis, Gkova, Mellou, Gerolymatos, Psalida et al., Real-world effectiveness of molnupiravir and nirmatrelvir/ritonavir as treatments for COVID-19 in high-risk patients, J Infect Dis
Park, Park, Lee, Yu, Song et al., The effectiveness of Paxlovid treatment in long-term care facilities in South Korea during the outbreak of the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2, Osong Public Health Res Perspect, doi:10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0262
Rosenbaum, Db, The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects, Biometrika
Ross, Bortolussi-Courval, Hanula, Lee, Wilson et al., Drug interactions with nirmatrelvirritonavir in older adults using multiple medications, JAMA Netw Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.20184
Siddiqi, Mehra, COVID-19 illness in native and immunosuppressed states: a clinical-therapeutic staging proposal, J Heart Lung Transplant, doi:10.1016/j.healun.2020.03.012
Soy, Keser, Atagündüz, Pathogenesis and treatment of cytokine storm in COVID-19, Turk J Biol, doi:10.3906/biy-2105-37
Suzuki, Shibata, Minemura, Nikaido, Tanino et al., Real-world clinical outcomes of treatment with molnupiravir for patients with mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease 2019 during the Omicron variant pandemic, Clin Exp Med, doi:10.1007/s10238-022-00949-3
Takashita, Kinoshita, Yamayoshi, Sakai-Tagawa, Fujisaki et al., Efficacy of antibodies and antiviral drugs against Covid-19 omicron variant, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMc2119407
Takashita, Yamayoshi, Simon, Van Bakel, Sordillo et al., Efficacy of antibodies and antiviral drugs against omicron BA.2.12.1, BA.4, and BA.5 subvariants, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMc2207519
Watson, Barnsley, Toor, Hogan, Winskill et al., Global impact of the first year of COVID-19 vaccination: a mathematical modelling study, Lancet Infect Dis, doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(22)00320-6
Wen, Chen, Tang, Wang, Zhou et al., Efficacy and safety of three new oral antiviral treatment (molnupiravir, fluvoxamine and Paxlovid) for COVID-19:a meta-analysis, Ann Med, doi:10.1080/07853890.2022.2034936
Wong, Au, Lau, Lau, Cowling et al., Real-world effectiveness of early molnupiravir or nirmatrelvirritonavir in hospitalised patients with COVID-19 without supplemental oxygen requirement on admission during Hong Kong's omicron BA.2 wave: a retrospective cohort study, Lancet Infect Dis, doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(22)00507-2
Wong, Au, Lau, Lau, Cowling et al., Real-world effectiveness of molnupiravir and nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir against mortality, hospitalisation, and in-hospital outcomes among community-dwelling, ambulatory patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during the omicron wave in Hong Kong: an observational study, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(22)01586-0
Wu, Chen, Cai, Xia, Zhou et al., Risk factors associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome and death in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia in Wuhan, China, JAMA Intern Med, doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.0994
Xie, Bowe, Al-Aly, Molnupiravir and risk of hospital admission or death in adults with covid-19: emulation of a randomized target trial using electronic health records, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj-2022-072705
Yang, Zheng, Gou, Pu, Chen et al., Prevalence of comorbidities and its effects in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Int J Infect Dis, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.017
Ying-Hao, Yuan-Yuan, Dong, Qiu-Hua, Xue-Ran et al., Clinical characteristics and analysis of risk factors for disease progression of patients with SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant infection: a retrospective study of 25207 cases in a Fangcang hospital, Front Cell Infect Microbiol, doi:10.3389/fcimb.2022.1009894
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop