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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Prevalence of Micronutrient Deficiencies in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19: An Observational Cohort Study

Voelkle et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14091862
Apr 2022  
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Death/ICU 23% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Voelkle et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Prospective study of 57 patients in Switzerland (Mar - Apr 2020) Lower death/ICU with higher vitamin D levels (not stat. sig., p=0.55) c19early.org Voelkle et al., Nutrients, April 2022 Favorsvitamin D Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 121 studies, recognized in 9 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 75 treatments. c19early.org
Prospective study of 57 consecutive hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Switzerland, showing higher risk of mortality/ICU admission with vitamin A, vitamin D, and zinc deficiency, with statistical significance only for vitamin A and zinc. Adjustments only considered age.
This is the 131st of 198 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 361,397 vigintillion).
Study covers vitamin B9, vitamin A, zinc, selenium, and vitamin D.
risk of death/ICU, 23.4% lower, RR 0.77, p = 0.55, high D levels 8 of 34 (23.5%), low D levels 7 of 23 (30.4%), NNT 14, adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels, odds ratio converted to relative risk.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Voelkle et al., 30 Apr 2022, prospective, Switzerland, peer-reviewed, median age 67.0, 9 authors, study period 17 March, 2020 - 30 April, 2020. Contact: schuetzph@gmail.com (corresponding author), manyola.voelkle@ksa.ch, claudia.gregoriano@ksa.ch, daniel.koch@ksa.ch, alexander.kutz@ksa.ch, beat.mueller@ksa.ch, anna.conen@ksa.ch, peter.neyer@ksa.ch, luca.bernasconi@ksa.ch.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Prevalence of Micronutrient Deficiencies in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19: An Observational Cohort Study
Manyola Voelkle, Claudia Gregoriano, Peter Neyer, Daniel Koch, Alexander Kutz, Luca Bernasconi, Anna Conen, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz
Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14091862
Background: A higher risk for severe clinical courses of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been linked to deficiencies of several micronutrients. We therefore studied the prevalence of deficiencies of eight different micronutrients in a cohort of hospitalized COVID-19-patients. Methods: We measured admission serum/plasma levels of vitamins A, B12, D, and E, as well as folic acid, zinc, selenium, and copper in 57 consecutively admitted adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 and analyzed prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies and correlations among micronutrient levels. Further, we studied associations of micronutrient levels with severe disease progression, a composite endpoint consisting of in-hospital mortality and/or need for intensive care unit (ICU) treatment with logistic regression. Results: Median age was 67.0 years (IQR 60.0, 74.2) and 60% (n = 34) were male. Overall, 79% (n = 45) of patients had at least one deficient micronutrient level and 33% (n = 19) had ≥3 deficiencies. Most prevalent deficiencies were found for selenium, vitamin D, vitamin A, and zinc (51%, 40%, 39%, and 39%, respectively). We found several correlations among micronutrients with correlation coefficients ranging from r = 0.27 to r = 0.42. The strongest associations with lower risk for severe COVID-19 disease progression (adjusted odds ratios) were found for higher levels of vitamin A (0.18, 95% CI 0.05-0.69, p = 0.01), zinc (0.73, 95% CI 0.55-0.98, p = 0.03), and folic acid (0.88, 95% CI 0.78-0.98, p = 0.02). Conclusions: We found a high prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in mostly older patients hospitalized for COVID-19, particularly regarding selenium, vitamin D, vitamin A, and zinc. Several deficiencies were associated with a higher risk for more severe COVID-19 courses. Whether supplementation of micronutrients is useful for prevention of severe clinical courses or treatment of COVID-19 warrants further research.
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Methods: We measured admission serum/plasma levels of vitamins A, B12, D, ' 'and E, as well as folic acid, zinc, selenium, and copper in 57 consecutively admitted adult ' 'patients with confirmed COVID-19 and analyzed prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies and ' 'correlations among micronutrient levels. Further, we studied associations of micronutrient ' 'levels with severe disease progression, a composite endpoint consisting of in-hospital ' 'mortality and/or need for intensive care unit (ICU) treatment with logistic regression. ' 'Results: Median age was 67.0 years (IQR 60.0, 74.2) and 60% (n = 34) were male. Overall, 79% ' '(n = 45) of patients had at least one deficient micronutrient level and 33% (n = 19) had ≥3 ' 'deficiencies. Most prevalent deficiencies were found for selenium, vitamin D, vitamin A, and ' 'zinc (51%, 40%, 39%, and 39%, respectively). We found several correlations among ' 'micronutrients with correlation coefficients ranging from r = 0.27 to r = 0.42. 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