Low Levels of Few Micronutrients May Impact COVID-19 Disease Progression: An Observational Study on the First Wave
Tomasa-Irriguible et al.
, Low Levels of Few Micronutrients May Impact COVID-19 Disease Progression: An Observational Study on the First..
, Metabolites, doi:10.3390/metabo11090565 (date from earlier preprint)
Retrospective 120 hospitalized patients in Spain showing no significant differences for vitamin D deficiency.
risk of mechanical ventilation, 35.0% lower, RR 0.65, p = 0.21, high D levels 15 of 27 (55.6%), low D levels 18 of 78 (23.1%), adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels, odds ratio converted to relative risk, ≥20 ng/mL, bivariate logistic regression.
risk of ICU admission, 16.9% lower, RR 0.83, p = 0.58, high D levels 11 of 27 (40.7%), low D levels 17 of 78 (21.8%), adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels, odds ratio converted to relative risk, ≥20 ng/mL, bivariate logistic regression.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Tomasa-Irriguible et al., 26 Oct 2020, retrospective, Spain, peer-reviewed, 7 authors, study period March 2020 - May 2020.
Low Levels of Few Micronutrients May Impact COVID-19
Disease Progression: An Observational Study on the First Wave
Teresa-Maria Tomasa-Irriguible 1, * , Lara Bielsa-Berrocal 1 , Luisa Bordejé-Laguna 1 , Cristina Tural-Llàcher 2 ,
Jaume Barallat 3 , Josep-Maria Manresa-Domínguez 4 and Pere Torán-Monserrat 4
Citation: Tomasa-Irriguible, T.-M.;
Bielsa-Berrocal, L.; Bordejé-Laguna,
L.; Tural-Llàcher, C.; Barallat, J.;
Torán-Monserrat, P. Low Levels of
Few Micronutrients May Impact
COVID-19 Disease Progression: An
Observational Study on the First
Wave. Metabolites 2021, 11, 565.
Academic Editors: Amedeo Lonardo,
Elena Planells, Yenifer Gamarra and
Received: 29 June 2021
Accepted: 20 August 2021
Published: 24 August 2021
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral
with regard to jurisdictional claims in
published maps and institutional affiliations.
Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, 08916 Badalona, Spain;
firstname.lastname@example.org (L.B.-B.); email@example.com (L.B.-L.)
Internal Medicine Department, University Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, 08916 Badalona, Spain;
Biochemical Department, University Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, 08916 Badalona, Spain;
North Metropolitan Research Support Unit, Jordi Gol i Gurina Foundation Institute for Research in Primary
Health Care (IDIAPJGol), 08303 Mataró, Spain; firstname.lastname@example.org (J.-M.M.-D.);
Abstract: We report an observational study performed between March and May 2020 in a Spanish
university hospital during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The main objective was to analyse the association between the levels of micronutrients in severe COVID-19 patients and their outcome. Adult
patients with a positive polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 in the nasopharyngeal
swab or in tracheal aspirate culture in the case of intubation were included. Micronutrient data were
obtained from plasma analysis of a standard nutritional assessment performed within the first 24 h of
hospital admission. Vitamins A, B6 , C and E were analysed with HPLC methods; 25-OH-vitamin D
by immunoassay and zinc by colorimetric measurements. One hundred and twenty patients were
included. We found that 74.2% patients had low levels of zinc (normal levels >84 µg/dL) with a
mean value of 63.5 (SD 13.5); 71.7% patients had low levels of vitamin A (normal levels >0.3 mg/L)
with a mean value of 0.17 (SD 0.06); 42.5% patients had low levels of vitamin B6 (normal levels
>3.6 ng/mL) with a mean value of 2.2 (SD 0.9); 100% patients had low levels of vitamin C (normal
levels >0.4 mg/dL) with a mean value of 0.14 (SD 0.05); 74.3% patients had low values of vitamin D
(normal levels >20 ng/mL) with mean value of 11.4 (SD 4.3); but only 5.8% of patients had low levels
of vitamin E (normal levels >5 mg/L) with a mean value of 3.95 (SD 0.87). The variables associated
with the need for ICU admission were low levels of zinc (standard error 0.566, 95% CI 0.086 to 0.790,
p = 0.017), low levels of vitamin A (standard error 0.582, 95% CI 0.061 to 0.594, p = 0.004), age over
65 (standard error 0.018, 95% CI 0.917 to 0.985, p = 0.005) and male gender (standard error 0.458,
95% CI 1.004 to 6.040, p = 0.049). The only variable that was..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and
treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should
be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention
is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not
provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified
physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and
benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC
provide treatment protocols.