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Vitamin D Deficiency and Comorbidities as Risk Factors of COVID-19 Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Mishra et al., Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, doi:10.3961/jpmph.21.640
Jul 2022  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Systematic review and meta analysis showing low vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 cases.
14 meta analyses show significant improvements with vitamin D treatment for mortality Argano, Begum, D’Ecclesiis, Hariyanto, Hosseini, Jamilian, Nikniaz, Shah, Sobczak, Xie, mechanical ventilation Hariyanto, Meng, Shah, Xie, ICU admission Hariyanto, Hosseini, Meng, Sartini, Shah, Sobczak, Tentolouris, Xie, hospitalization Argano, severity D’Ecclesiis, Nikniaz, Varikasuvu, Xie, and cases Begum, Sartini, Varikasuvu.
Currently there are 120 vitamin D treatment for COVID-19 studies, showing 36% lower mortality [28‑43%], 16% lower ventilation [-7‑34%], 46% lower ICU admission [28‑60%], 19% lower hospitalization [9‑29%], and 17% fewer cases [9‑24%].
Mishra et al., 31 Jul 2022, peer-reviewed, 4 authors. Contact: nidhi.bharal@gmail.com.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Vitamin D Deficiency and Comorbidities as Risk Factors of COVID-19 Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Pinki Mishra, Rizwana Parveen, Ram Bajpai, Nidhi Agarwal
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, doi:10.3961/jpmph.21.640
Objectives: Extensive evidence links low vitamin D status and comorbidities with coronavirus disease 2019 outcomes, but the results of published studies are contradictory. Therefore, we investigated the association of lower levels of vitamin D and comorbidities with the risk of COVID-19 infection. Methods: We searched MEDLINE (via PubMed), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov for articles published until August 20, 2021. Sixteen eligible studies were identified (386 631 patients, of whom 181 114 were male). We included observational cohort and case-control studies that evaluated serum levels of vitamin D in COVID-19-positive and COVID-19-negative patients. Mean differences (MDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results: Significantly lower vitamin D levels were found in COVID-19-positive patients (MD, -1.70; 95% CI, -2.74 to -0.66; p=0.001), but with variation by study design (case-control: -4.04; 95% CI, -5.98 to -2.10; p<0.001; cohort: -0.39; 95% CI, -1.62 to 0.84; p=0.538). This relationship was more prominent in female patients (MD, -2.18; 95% CI, -4.08 to -0.28; p=0.024) than in male patients (MD, -1.74; 95% CI, -3.79 to 0.31; p=0.096). Male patients showed higher odds of having low vitamin D levels (odds ratio [OR], 2.09; 95% CI, 1.38 to 3.17; p<0.001) than female patients (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.86; p=0.477). Comorbidities showed inconsistent, but generally nonsignificant, associations with COVID-19 infection. Conclusions: Low serum vitamin-D levels were significantly associated with the risk of COVID-19 infection. This relationship was stronger in female than in male COVID-19 patients. Limited evidence was found for the relationships between comorbidities and COVID-19 infection, warranting large population-based studies to clarify these associations.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST The authors have no conflicts of interest associated with the material presented in this paper. FUNDING None. AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS Conceptualization: Mishra P, Parveen R. Data curation: Mishra P, Parveen R. Formal analysis: Mishra P, Bajpai R. Funding acquisition: None. Methodology: Mishra P, Bajpai R. Project administration: Agarwal N, Mishra P. Visualization: Mishra P, Parveen R. Writing -original draft: Mishra P, Parveen R, Agarwal N, Bajpai R. Writing -review & editing: Bajpai R, Agarwal N.
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Mean ' 'differences (MDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated.Results: Significantly ' 'lower vitamin D levels were found in COVID-19-positive patients (MD, -1.70; 95% CI, -2.74 to ' '-0.66; p=0.001), but with variation by study design (case-control: -4.04; 95% CI, -5.98 to ' '-2.10; p&lt;0.001; cohort: -0.39; 95% CI, -1.62 to 0.84; p=0.538). This relationship was more ' 'prominent in female patients (MD, -2.18; 95% CI, -4.08 to -0.28; p=0.024) than in male ' 'patients (MD, -1.74; 95% CI, -3.79 to 0.31; p=0.096). Male patients showed higher odds of ' 'having low vitamin D levels (odds ratio [OR], 2.09; 95% CI, 1.38 to 3.17; p&lt;0.001) than ' 'female patients (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.86; p=0.477). Comorbidities showed inconsistent, ' 'but generally non-significant, associations with COVID-19 infection.Conclusions: Low serum ' 'vitamin-D levels were significantly associated with the risk of COVID-19 infection. 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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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