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Sunlight and vitamin D in the prevention of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection and mortality in the United States

Li et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-32499/v1
Jun 2020  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
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Analysis of COVID-19 cases in the USA reporting a potential relationship between latitude and the number of COVID-19 cases (p = 0.08) and deaths (p=0.06). Authors note that sunlight and vitamin D may reduce risk for COVID-19 cases and deaths.
Study covers sunlight and vitamin D.
Li et al., 2 Jun 2020, USA, preprint, 4 authors. Contact: zliu@nutrition.umass.edu.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Sunlight and vitamin D in the prevention of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection and mortality in the United States
Yajia Li, Qiangxiang Li, Ning Zhang, Ph.D Zhenhua Liu
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the most recently discovered coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This study aims to investigate associations between sunlight and vitamin D, using latitude as an indicator, with COVID-19 cases and related deaths in the United States. General regression and Chi-square test were used to examine the associations between latitude and COVID-19 cases and deaths. The analyses indicated that latitudes were marginally associated with cases (p = 0.0792) and deaths (p = 0.0599), with an increase of 2491 cases and 189 deaths of the total numbers in the mainland of US for every unit of increase of the latitude. When the states were classified into high latitude (>N 37 0 ) and low latitude (<N 37 0 ) groups, both the cases (702 vs 255 cases/100k population) and deaths (43 vs 11 deaths/100k population) were significantly different (p < 0.001) between the two categories. The results suggested that sunlight and vitamin D, with latitude as an indicator, might be associated with decreased risks for both COVID-19 cases and deaths. These findings warranted urgent needs of large cohort, clinical and pre-clinical studies to assess the impact of VD on the prevention of COVID-19.
Author Contributions: Z.L. conceived the concept, collected the data, did the data analysis and wrote the manuscript. Y.L. and Q.L. equally contributed to this study by providing background review of COVID-19. Y.L. also participated the data analysis and provided background of vitamin D synthesis via ultraviolet in skin. Q.L. also participated the discussion of the design and interpretation of the results. N.Z. participated the discussion of the concept, the design, the interpretation of the data and the review of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.
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