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Sunlight and vitamin D in the prevention of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection and mortality in the United States
Li et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-32499/v1 (Preprint)
Li et al., Sunlight and vitamin D in the prevention of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection and mortality in the.., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-32499/v1 (Preprint)
Jun 2020   Source   PDF  
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Analysis of COVID-19 cases in the USA reporting a potential relationship between latitude and the number of COVID-19 cases (p = 0.08) and deaths (p=0.06). Authors note that sunlight and vitamin D may reduce risk for COVID-19 cases and deaths.
Li et al., 2 Jun 2020, USA, preprint, 4 authors.
Contact: zliu@nutrition.umass.edu.
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Abstract: Title: Sunlight and vitamin D in the prevention of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection and mortality in the United States Yajia Li1, Qiangxiang Li2, Ning Zhang3, Zhenhua Liu4,* 1 Department of Dermatology, Xiangya Hospital, and Hunan Key Laboratory of Skin Cancer, Central South University, Changsha, 410013, China. 2 Ningxia Geriatrics Clinical Research Center, People's Hospital of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Yinchuan, Ningxia, 750001, China. 3 Department of Health Promotion and Policy, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 01003, USA. 4 Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 01003, USA. *Corresponding Author: Zhenhua Liu, Ph.D. Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst 100 Holdsworth Way, Amherst, MA, 01003 Email: zliu@nutrition.umass.edu; Tel: 1-413-545-1075; Fax: 1-413-545-1074 Running Title: Vitamin D in the prevention of coronavirus disease 1 Abstract The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the most recently discovered coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This study aims to investigate associations between sunlight and vitamin D, using latitude as an indicator, with COVID-19 cases and related deaths in the United States. General regression and Chi-square test were used to examine the associations between latitude and COVID-19 cases and deaths. The analyses indicated that latitudes were marginally associated with cases (p = 0.0792) and deaths (p = 0.0599), with an increase of 2491 cases and 189 deaths of the total numbers in the mainland of US for every unit of increase of the latitude. When the states were classified into high latitude (>N 370) and low latitude (<N 370) groups, both the cases (702 vs 255 cases/100k population) and deaths (43 vs 11 deaths/100k population) were significantly different (p < 0.001) between the two categories. The results suggested that sunlight and vitamin D, with latitude as an indicator, might be associated with decreased risks for both COVID-19 cases and deaths. These findings warranted urgent needs of large cohort, clinical and pre-clinical studies to assess the impact of VD on the prevention of COVID-19. Keywords: Coronavirus, COVID-19, Infection, Latitude, Sunshine, Vitamin D
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