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Quercetin as a Therapeutic Product: Evaluation of Its Pharmacological Action and Clinical Applications—A Review

Mirza et al., Pharmaceuticals, doi:10.3390/ph16111631
Nov 2023  
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Quercetin for COVID-19
24th treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2021
 
*, now known with p = 0.0031 from 11 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Review of the pharmacological actions, clinical trials, patents, marketed products, and approaches to improving the bioavailability of the flavonoid quercetin. Quercetin has shown therapeutic potential as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anticancer, cardioprotective, antiviral, and antibacterial agent. Clinical trials indicate quercetin may improve cardiovascular risk factors, inflammation, immunity, pulmonary diseases, polycystic ovary syndrome, and diabetes, among other conditions. However, the use of quercetin is limited by its poor solubility and bioavailability. To address this, researchers have developed quercetin-based nanoformulations including solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, liposomes, niosomes, transferosomes, nanoemulsions, and microemulsions. These novel delivery systems have shown improved quercetin solubility, stability, sustained release, and site-specific targeting, suggesting they could enable wider clinical application.
Reviews covering quercetin for COVID-19 include Agrawal, Biancatelli, Derosa, Dinda, Gasmi, Georgiou, Imran, Massimo Magro, Matías-Pérez, Mirza, Rizky, Shorobi.
Mirza et al., 20 Nov 2023, peer-reviewed, 8 authors. Contact: syedmahmood@um.edu.my (corresponding author), aamir.jhu07@gmail.com, amirazamzaidi1@gmail.com, ayah.hilles90@gmail.com, abuali@tu.edu.sa, zeenatiqbal@jamiahamdard.ac.in, y.ge@qub.ac.uk.
This PaperQuercetinAll
Quercetin as a Therapeutic Product: Evaluation of Its Pharmacological Action and Clinical Applications—A Review
Mohd Aamir Mirza, Syed Mahmood, Ayah Rebhi Hilles, Abuzer Ali, Mohammed Zaafar Khan, Syed Amir Azam Zaidi, Zeenat Iqbal, Yi Ge
Pharmaceuticals, doi:10.3390/ph16111631
Quercetin is the major polyphenolic flavonoid that belongs to the class called flavanols. It is found in many foods, such as green tea, cranberry, apple, onions, asparagus, radish leaves, buckwheat, blueberry, broccoli, and coriander. It occurs in many different forms, but the most abundant quercetin derivatives are glycosides and ethers, namely, Quercetin 3-O-glycoside, Quercetin 3-sulfate, Quercetin 3-glucuronide, and Quercetin 3 -metylether. Quercetin has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, cardioprotective, antiviral, and antibacterial effects. It is found to be beneficial against cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, neuro-degenerative diseases, allergy asthma, peptic ulcers, osteoporosis, arthritis, and eye disorders. In pre-clinical and clinical investigations, its impacts on various signaling pathways and molecular targets have demonstrated favorable benefits for the activities mentioned above, and some global clinical trials have been conducted to validate its therapeutic profile. It is also utilized as a nutraceutical due to its pharmacological properties. Although quercetin has several pharmacological benefits, its clinical use is restricted due to its poor water solubility, substantial first-pass metabolism, and consequent low bioavailability. To circumvent this limited bioavailability, a quercetin-based nanoformulation has been considered in recent times as it manifests increased quercetin uptake by the epithelial system and enhances the delivery of quercetin to the target site. This review mainly focuses on pharmacological action, clinical trials, patents, marketed products, and approaches to improving the bioavailability of quercetin with the use of a nanoformulation.
studies for any indication to validate the claims should be carried out. If the results are encouraging, further indications can be added to the studies, and in that case, the safety trials will be abridged. Supplementary Materials: The following supporting information can be downloaded at: https:// www.mdpi.com/article/10.3390/ph16111631/s1, Table S1 : Globally available marketed products of quercetin (products ranges from 100 mg to 1500 mg). Table S2 . Depicts commercial products of quercetin.
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