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Anti-SARS-CoV-2, antioxidant and immunomodulatory potential of dietary flavonol quercetin: Focus on molecular targets and clinical efficacy

Dinda et al., European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry Reports, doi:10.1016/j.ejmcr.2023.100125
Dec 2023  
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Quercetin for COVID-19
24th treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2021
*, now known with p = 0.0031 from 11 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Review of the antiviral, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of the flavonoid quercetin and its glycosides. Authors review their ability to inhibit infections of SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses by interfering with viral entry, replication, and protein synthesis. These compounds target the activities of viral spike (S), main (3CL), papain-like (PL), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and non-structural protein 13 (Nsp13) proteases. They also induce the antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2, inhibit pro-inflammatory enzymes like xanthine oxidase (XO) and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), and suppress high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Attempts to improve the oral bioavailability of quercetin via structural modification and nanoformulation are discussed. Authors discuss the results of several small clinical trials showing that a bioavailable quercetin phytosome formulation was effective against early stage COVID-19 infection.
Reviews covering quercetin for COVID-19 include Agrawal, Biancatelli, Derosa, Dinda, Gasmi, Georgiou, Imran, Massimo Magro, Matías-Pérez, Mirza, Rizky, Shorobi.
Dinda et al., 12 Dec 2023, peer-reviewed, 5 authors. Contact:
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Anti-SARS-CoV-2, antioxidant and immunomodulatory potential of dietary flavonol quercetin: Focus on molecular targets and clinical efficacy
Biswanath Dinda, Manikarna Dinda, Subhajit Dinda, Partha Sarathi Ghosh, Saroj Kumar Das
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry Reports, doi:10.1016/j.ejmcr.2023.100125
The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, caused by the infection of SARS-CoV-2, seems to be a tough global challenge because of its highly contagious nature and rapid evolution of the virus strain. As no effective clinical drugs are available for the treatment of this disease in the early phase till to date, scientists are hunting for drugs from natural sources for its treatment. Quercetin, a dietary polyphenolic flavonoid found in fruits and vegetables, has been reported to exhibit various health-benefit pharmacological properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral and anticancer properties. In silico and in vitro studies demonstrated that quercetin potently inhibits the infections of SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses by interfering with viral entry and replication via inhibiting the activity of host ACE2 receptor, and viral S-, 3CL-, PL-, RdRpand Nsp13 -proteases. Moreover, quercetin is able to suppress oxidative stress, cytokine storm, thrombosis, sepsis and lung fibrosis, and thereby very likely is able to mitigate COVID-19 infection. In this review article, we elaborately discussed the antiviral, immunomodulatory, antioxidant properties of quercetin against viral infections and other diseases, as well as on its nanoformulations for enhancement of oral bioavailability and clinical efficacy in COVID-19 infection for its development as clinical drug for COVID-19.
Author contributions BD: Conceptualization, Methodology, Data curation, Resources, Validation, Writing-original draft, Writing-Review & editing, Visualization, Supervision. Declaration of competing interest The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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