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Early Nutritional Interventions with Zinc, Selenium and Vitamin D for Raising Anti-Viral Resistance Against Progressive COVID-19

Alexander et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12082358
Aug 2020  
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Review exploring the potential of early nutritional intervention with zinc, selenium and vitamin D to prevent progression of COVID-19, based on the importance of these micronutrients for anti-viral resistance and reduced inflammation. Authors recommend early initiation of supplementation in high-risk areas and soon after suspected infection, particularly for high-risk groups, based on previous research showing the importance of these micronutrients for other respiratory infections and inflammatory conditions.
Reviews covering selenium for COVID-19 include1-4.
Review covers selenium, zinc, and vitamin D.
Alexander et al., 7 Aug 2020, peer-reviewed, 6 authors. Contact: urban.alehagen@liu.se (corresponding author), jan.alexander@fhi.no, tinkov.a.a@gmail.com, skalny3@gmail.com, jaol-aas@online.no, tors@me.com.
This PaperSeleniumAll
Early Nutritional Interventions with Zinc, Selenium and Vitamin D for Raising Anti-Viral Resistance Against Progressive COVID-19
Jan Alexander, Alexey Tinkov, Tor A Strand, Urban Alehagen, Anatoly Skalny, Jan Aaseth
Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12082358
Objectives: The novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) conveys a serious threat globally to health and economy because of a lack of vaccines and specific treatments. A common factor for conditions that predispose for serious progress is a low-grade inflammation, e.g., as seen in metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and heart failure, to which micronutrient deficiencies may contribute. The aim of the present article was to explore the usefulness of early micronutrient intervention, with focus on zinc, selenium, and vitamin D, to relieve escalation of COVID-19. Methods: We conducted an online search for articles published in the period 2010-2020 on zinc, selenium, and vitamin D, and corona and related virus infections. Results: There were a few studies providing direct evidence on associations between zinc, selenium, and vitamin D, and COVID-19. Adequate supply of zinc, selenium, and vitamin D is essential for resistance to other viral infections, immune function, and reduced inflammation. Hence, it is suggested that nutrition intervention securing an adequate status might protect against the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome -coronavirus-2) and mitigate the course of COVID-19. Conclusion: We recommended initiation of adequate supplementation in high-risk areas and/or soon after the time of suspected infection with SARS-CoV-2. Subjects in high-risk groups should have high priority as regards this nutritive adjuvant therapy, which should be started prior to administration of specific and supportive medical measures.
Author Contributions: J.A. (Jan Aaseth) and J.A. (Jan Alexander) searched the literature and prepared the first draft. All authors contributed equally to writing additional text, review and editing of the manuscript. Conflicts of Interest: One of the authors (U.A.) received support from Pharma Nord ApS, Denmark for a previous study. Authors J.A. (Jan Alexander), A.T., T.A.S., A.S., and J.A. (Jan Aaseth) declare no conflicts of interests. Author Contributions: J.A. (Jan Aaseth) and J.A. (Jan Alexander) searched the literature and prepared the first draft. All authors contributed equally to writing additional text, review and editing of the manuscript. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Conflicts of Interest: One of the authors (U.A.) received support from Pharma Nord ApS, Denmark for a previous study. Authors J.A. (Jan Alexander), A.T., T.A.S., A.S., and J.A. (Jan Aaseth) declare no conflicts of interests.
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{ 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2024, 7, 2]], 'date-time': '2024-07-02T00:40:19Z', 'timestamp': 1719880819356}, 'reference-count': 105, 'publisher': 'MDPI AG', 'issue': '8', 'license': [ { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2020, 8, 7]], 'date-time': '2020-08-07T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1596758400000}, 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/'}], 'content-domain': {'domain': [], 'crossmark-restriction': False}, 'abstract': '<jats:p>Objectives: The novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) conveys a serious threat ' 'globally to health and economy because of a lack of vaccines and specific treatments. A ' 'common factor for conditions that predispose for serious progress is a low-grade ' 'inflammation, e.g., as seen in metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and heart failure, to which ' 'micronutrient deficiencies may contribute. The aim of the present article was to explore the ' 'usefulness of early micronutrient intervention, with focus on zinc, selenium, and vitamin D, ' 'to relieve escalation of COVID-19. Methods: We conducted an online search for articles ' 'published in the period 2010–2020 on zinc, selenium, and vitamin D, and corona and related ' 'virus infections. Results: There were a few studies providing direct evidence on associations ' 'between zinc, selenium, and vitamin D, and COVID-19. Adequate supply of zinc, selenium, and ' 'vitamin D is essential for resistance to other viral infections, immune function, and reduced ' 'inflammation. Hence, it is suggested that nutrition intervention securing an adequate status ' 'might protect against the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - ' 'coronavirus-2) and mitigate the course of COVID-19. Conclusion: We recommended initiation of ' 'adequate supplementation in high-risk areas and/or soon after the time of suspected infection ' 'with SARS-CoV-2. Subjects in high-risk groups should have high priority as regards this ' 'nutritive adjuvant therapy, which should be started prior to administration of specific and ' 'supportive medical measures.</jats:p>', 'DOI': '10.3390/nu12082358', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2020, 8, 7]], 'date-time': '2020-08-07T13:30:54Z', 'timestamp': 1596807054000}, 'page': '2358', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 165, 'title': 'Early Nutritional Interventions with Zinc, Selenium and Vitamin D for Raising Anti-Viral ' 'Resistance Against Progressive COVID-19', 'prefix': '10.3390', 'volume': '12', 'author': [ { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6381-5720', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Jan', 'family': 'Alexander', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Infection Control and Environment Health, Norwegian ' 'Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 222 Skøyen, 0213 Oslo, ' 'Norway'}]}, { 'given': 'Alexey', 'family': 'Tinkov', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Laboratory of Biotechnology and Bioelementology, Yaroslavl State ' 'University, Sovetskaya Str. 14, Yaroslavl 150000, Russia'}, { 'name': 'IM Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov ' 'University), Bolshaya Pirogovskaya St., Moscow 119146, Russia'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4038-151X', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Tor A.', 'family': 'Strand', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, P.O. Box ' '7804, 5020 Bergen, Norway'}, { 'name': 'Research Department, Innlandet Hospital Trust, P.O. Box 104, ' '2381 Brumunddal, Norway'}]}, { 'given': 'Urban', 'family': 'Alehagen', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medical and ' 'Health Sciences, Linköping University, SE-58185 Linköping, ' 'Sweden'}]}, { 'given': 'Anatoly', 'family': 'Skalny', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Laboratory of Biotechnology and Bioelementology, Yaroslavl State ' 'University, Sovetskaya Str. 14, Yaroslavl 150000, Russia'}, { 'name': 'IM Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov ' 'University), Bolshaya Pirogovskaya St., Moscow 119146, Russia'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7518-5703', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Jan', 'family': 'Aaseth', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'IM Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov ' 'University), Bolshaya Pirogovskaya St., Moscow 119146, Russia'}, { 'name': 'Research Department, Innlandet Hospital Trust, P.O. 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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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