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Zinc and selenium status in coronavirus disease 2019

Fan et al., BioMetals, doi:10.1007/s10534-023-00501-0
Apr 2023  
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Meta analysis showing increased risk of COVID-19 with zinc deficiency and selenium deficiency. Zinc deficiency was also associated with severity, while there was no significant association for mortality.
Currently there are 4 selenium treatment studies and meta analysis shows:
OutcomeImprovement
Mortality35% lower [-273‑89%]
Hospitalization22% lower [-106‑70%]
Cases41% fewer [-98‑82%]
Study covers selenium and zinc.
Fan et al., 20 Apr 2023, peer-reviewed, 9 authors. Contact: qjxue9797@126.com.
This PaperSeleniumAll
Zinc and selenium status in coronavirus disease 2019
Liding Fan, Yanshuo Cui, Zonghao Liu, Jiayue Guo, Xiaohui Gong, Yunfei Zhang, Weihao Tang, Jiahe Zhao, Qingjie Xue
BioMetals, doi:10.1007/s10534-023-00501-0
We systematically analyzed and attempted to discuss the possibility that deficiencies of zinc or selenium were associated with the incidence and severity of COVID-19. We searched for published and unpublished articles in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane up to 9 February 2023. And we selected healthy individuals, mild/severe, and even deceased COVID-19 patients to analyze their serum data. Data related to 2319 patients from 20 studies were analyzed. In the mild/severe group, zinc deficiency was associated with the degree of severe disease (SMD = 0.50, 95% CI 0.32-0.68, I 2 = 50.5%) and we got an Egger's test of p = 0.784; but selenium deficiency was not associated with the degree of severe disease (SMD = − 0.03, 95% CI − 0.98-0.93, I 2 = 96.7%). In the surviving/death group, zinc deficiency was not associated with mortality of COVID-19 (SMD = 1.66, 95%CI − 1.42-4.47), nor was selenium (SMD = − 0.16, 95%CI − 1.33-1.01). In the risk group, zinc deficiency was positively associated with the prevalence of COVID-19 (SMD = 1.21, 95% CI 0.96-1.46, I 2 = 54.3%) and selenium deficiency was also positively associated with the prevalence of it (SMD = 1.16, 95% CI 0.71-1.61, I 2 = 58.3%). Currently, serum zinc and selenium deficiencies increase the incidence of COVID-19 and zinc deficiency exacerbates the disease; however, neither zinc nor selenium was associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19. Nevertheless, our conclusions may change when new clinical studies are published.
Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at https:// doi. org/ 10. 1007/ s10534-023-00501-0. Author contributions QX conceived ideas, analyzed data; LF drafted the manuscript, contributed towards the conception; YC, ZL, JG, XG, YZ, WT, and JZ made great efforts to polish and revise the manuscript. All the authors provided critical review and approved the final manuscript before submission. Funding Data availability The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available in the PubMed, Embase and, WOS repository. Declarations Conflict of interest The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest. Ethical Approval Not applicable. Publisher's Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.
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' 'https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-021-02797-w', 'volume': '200', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1096/fj.202002346RR', 'author': 'HL Zeng', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e21392', 'issue': '3', 'journal-title': 'FASEB J', 'key': '501_CR53', 'unstructured': 'Zeng HL, Yang Q, Yuan P, Wang X, Cheng L (2021) Associations of ' 'essential and toxic metals/metalloids in whole blood with both disease ' 'severity and mortality in patients with COVID-19. FASEB J 35(3):e21392. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.202002346RR', 'volume': '35', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.redox.2020.101715', 'author': 'J Zhang', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '101715', 'issue': '37', 'journal-title': 'Redox Biol', 'key': '501_CR54', 'unstructured': 'Zhang J, Saad R, Taylor EW, Rayman MP (2020a) Selenium and ' 'selenoproteins in viral infection with potential relevance to COVID-19. 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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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