Comparing Serum Levels of Vitamin D and Zinc in Novel Coronavirus–Infected Patients and Healthy Individuals in Northeastern Iran, 2020
Hosseini et al.
, Comparing Serum Levels of Vitamin D and Zinc in Novel Coronavirus–Infected Patients and Healthy Individuals in..
, Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice, doi:10.1097/IPC.0000000000001051
Analysis of 56 COVID-19 patients and 46 healthy control patients in Iran, showing that severe cases had lower levels of vitamin D compared with non-severe cases and healthy controls.
Hosseini et al., 4 Aug 2021, Iran, peer-reviewed, 7 authors, study period 24 March, 2020 - 5 May, 2020.
Abstract: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Comparing Serum Levels of Vitamin D and Zinc in Novel
Coronavirus–Infected Patients and Healthy Individuals in
Northeastern Iran, 2020
Seyed Javad Hosseini, MSc,* Bagher Moradi, PhD,† Mahmood Marhemati, MSc,* Ali Asghar Firouzian, MSc,*
Eshagh Ildarabadi, PhD,* Ali Abedi, MSc,* and Mahbobeh Firooz, MSc*
Background: COVID-19 infection has recently become a pandemic disease around the world, and its risk factors have not fully evaluated. This
study aimed to compare the serum vitamin D (Vit D) and zinc levels in patients infected with novel coronavirus and healthy volunteers (HVs).
Methods: This was a single-center, cross-sectional study conducted on
56 patients (32 severe cases and 24 nonsevere) admitted to the COVID-19 ward
and 46 HVs living in Esfarayen City, North Khorasan Province of Iran. Serum levels of Vit D and zinc in admitted patients to the COVID-19 ward
and HVs were measured.
Results: The average levels of serum Vit D in severe cases, nonsevere
cases, and HVs were 31.03 ± 15.49, 37.25 ± 18.49, and 39.33 ± 14.83, respectively (P = 0.05). Moreover, the average concentrations of serum
zinc in severe cases, nonsevere cases, and HVs were 31.03 ± 15.49,
37.25 ± 18.49, and 39.33 ± 14.83, respectively (P = 0.01). Mortality rate,
reinfection (for 5 months), and length of hospital stay in severe cases were
higher than in nonsevere cases (P > 0.05).
Conclusions: Results showed that severe cases had lower levels of Vit D
than did other groups and were marginally significant. Also, severe cases
had a significantly low level of zinc when compared with nonsevere cases
and HVs. Levels of Vit D and zinc can affect the incidence of COVID-19
Key Words: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, novel coronaviruses, vitamin D,
(Infect Dis Clin Pract 2021;29: e390–e394)
OVID-19 infection is considered a pandemic and causes the
death of many people in the world (1,204,028 deaths until
the third of November 2020).1 It can cause severe lower respiratory
symptoms.2 This virus can be transmitted from person-to-person
through droplets, airborne, and contact with surfaces contaminated
by viruses.3 After being transmitted into the human body, it binds to
angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and induces internalization of the
complex by the host cell. The enzyme is highly expressed in the
From the Departments of *Nursing and †Microbiology, Esfarayen Faculty of
Medical Sciences, Esfarayen, Iran.
Correspondence to: Mahbobeh Firooz, MSc, Department of Nursing, Esfarayen
Faculty of Medical Sciences, Imam Reza St, Esfarayen City, North
Khorasan Province 96618-76981, Iran.
Author Contributions: S.J.H.: conceptualization and design, writing the original
draft and data analysis, sample collection; M.F.: conceptualization and
design, writing the original draft; B.M.: conceptualization and design,
manuscript editing; M.M.: sample collection; A.A.F.: data collection; E.I.:
manuscript editing; A.A.: manuscript editing.
This study was supported by a grant from the Esfarayen Faculty of Medical
The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.
Ethical Approval: The Research and Ethics Committee of the Esfarayen Faculty
of Medical Sciences (IR.ESFARAYENUMS.REC.1398.018) approved this
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