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Evaluation of zinc, copper, and Cu:Zn ratio in serum, and their implications in the course of COVID-19

Ivanova et al., Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jtemb.2022.126944
Feb 2022  
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Zinc for COVID-19
2nd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
 
*, now with p = 0.00000064 from 45 studies, recognized in 17 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 77 treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 75 COVID-19 hospitalized patients and 68 healthy controls in Bulgaria, showing mortality associated with lower zinc levels.
Ivanova et al., 8 Feb 2022, retrospective, Bulgaria, peer-reviewed, 7 authors, study period January 2021 - April 2021.
This PaperZincAll
Evaluation of zinc, copper, and Cu:Zn ratio in serum, and their implications in the course of COVID-19
Irena D Ivanova, Amit Pal, Ilaria Simonelli, Bisera Atanasova, Mariacarla Ventriglia, Mauro Rongioletti, Dr Rosanna Squitti
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jtemb.2022.126944
This is a PDF file of an article that has undergone enhancements after acceptance, such as the addition of a cover page and metadata, and formatting for readability, but it is not yet the definitive version of record. This version will undergo additional copyediting, typesetting and review before it is published in its final form, but we are providing this version to give early visibility of the article. Please note that, during the production process, errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.
Table 4 Number (%) of the acute COVID-19 patients with values of the studied biological variables outside the reference range Subjects with Acute patients n=75 (%) CRP values outside of the reference interval 66 (88%) Cu values outside of the reference interval less than the lower limit of the reference interval (<12.3 µmol/L) 9 (12%) higher than the upper limit of the reference interval (>24. less than the lower lower lower limit of the reference interval 1 (1.6%) higher than the upper upper limit of the reference interval 51 (79.7%) Ferritin values>500 µg/L 34 (53.1%) J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f Authors statements The content of the paper has not been yet published or submitted for publication elsewhere. Authors also confirm that all authors have contributed significantly, and that all authors are in agreement with the content of the manuscript. Specifically, Irena Ivanova has contribute in the conceptualization, methodology, original draft, and writingreview of the revised manuscript; Ilaria Simonelli contributed in the software, data curation, statistical analyses, and visualization of the results writing of the original and revised manuscript; Amit Pal, Mauro Rongioletti and Mariacarla Ventriglia in writing -original draft, and writing -review and editing; Bisera Atanasova contributed in writing -review and editing of the revised manuscript and Rosanna Squitti contributed to the conceptualization, on writing the original draft, and writing -review and..
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